Diabetes Distress and Quality of Life in Adults with Diabetes

  • Claire J. Hoogendoorn
  • Amit Shapira
  • Juan F. Roy
  • Naomi S. Kane
  • Jeffrey S. GonzalezEmail author


In this chapter, we discuss the importance of considering patient-reported outcomes (PROs) alongside surrogate measures to better assess benefits and potential costs of diabetes treatments in terms that matter to patients. Two central PROs in diabetes research and care include diabetes distress (DD) and quality of life (QOL). We begin by providing an overview of DD, discuss its association with depression and important diabetes outcomes, and review available DD measures. Next, we provide an overview of QOL measurement in diabetes and focus on health-related quality of life (HRQOL); discuss its differentiation from health status, its relationship to DD, and other diabetes outcomes; and provide recommendations for how to select an appropriate measure. In addition, we describe cultural, social, and demographic factors in relation to DD and HRQOL. Finally, we discuss conclusions and future directions in diabetes DD and HRQOL research. We conclude that PROs such as DD and QOL have emerged as valid, reliable, and meaningful constructs reflecting aspects of a patient’s health and well-being that are not captured by physiological measures alone. To ensure the best use of these PROs, it is imperative that conceptual clarity is improved, particularly when considering HRQOL, and that PRO measure construction and revision follow US Food and Drug Administration recommendations. PRO assessment undoubtedly improves clinical practices and is essential to truly move toward a patient-centered model of diabetes prevention and care.


Patient-reported outcomes Diabetes distress Health-related quality of life Type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes 


  1. Abbatecola, A. M., Spazzafumo, L., Fabbietti, P., Testa, R., Rabini, R. A., Bonfigli, A. R., … Paolisso, G. (2015). Diabetes-related quality of life is enhanced by glycaemic improvement in older people. Diabetic Medicine, 32(2), 243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ACCORD Study Group, Gerstein, H. C., Miller, M. E., Byington, R. P., Goff, D. C., Jr., Bigger, J. T., … Friedewald, W. T. (2008). Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 2545–2559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aikens, J. E. (2012). Prospective associations between emotional distress and poor outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 35(12), 2472–2478.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albrecht, G. L., & Devlieger, P. J. (1999). The disability paradox: High quality of life against all odds. Social Science & Medicine, 48(8), 977–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albright, T. L., Parchman, M., & Burge, S. K. (2001). Predictors of self-care behavior in adults with type 2 diabetes: An RRNeST study. Family Med, 33(5), 354–360.Google Scholar
  6. Alvarez-Guisasola, F., Yin, D. D., Nocea, G., Qiu, Y., & Mavros, P. (2010). Association of hypoglycemic symptoms with patients' rating of their health-related quality of life state: A cross sectional study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 8(1), 86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Diabetes Association. (2018). 6. Glycemic targets: Standards of medical Care in Diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Suppl 1), S55–S64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arnold, R., Ranchor, A. V., Sanderman, R., Kempen, G. I. J. M., Ormel, J., & Suurmeijer, T. P. B. M. (2004). The relative contribution of domains of quality of life to overall quality of life for different chronic diseases. Quality of Life Research, 13(5), 883–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baek, R. N., Tanenbaum, M. L., & Gonzalez, J. S. (2014). Diabetes burden and diabetes distress: The buffering effect of social support. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 48(2), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bai, Y. L., Chiou, C. P., & Chang, Y. Y. (2009). Self-care behaviour and related factors in older people with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(23), 3308–3315.Google Scholar
  11. Barnard, K. D., Speight, J., & Skinner, T. C. (2008). Quality of life and impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for children and their parents. Practical diabetes, 25(7), 278–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boden, M. T., & Gala, S. (2017). Exploring correlates of diabetes-related stress among adults with type 1 diabetes in the T1D exchange clinic registry. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 138, 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bott, U., Muhlhauser, I., Overmann, H., & Berger, M. (1998). Validation of a diabetes-specific quality-of-life scale for patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 21, 757–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyer, J. G., & Earp, J. A. L. (1997). The development of an instrument for assessing the quality of life of people with diabetes: Diabetes-39. Medical Care, 35(5), 440–453.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bradley, C. (2000). The 12-item Well-being questionnaire: Origins, current stage of development, and availability. Diabetes Care, 23, 875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley, C. (2001). Importance of differentiating health status from quality of life. The Lancet, 357(9249), 7–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bradley, C., Eschwège, E., de Pablos-Velasco, P., Parhofer, K. G., Simon, D., Vandenberghe, H., & Gönder-Frederick, L. (2018). Predictors of quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes in the PANORAMA multinational study of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 41(2), 267–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradley, C., & Speight, J. (2002). Patient perceptions of diabetes and diabetes therapy: Assessing quality of life. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 18(S3), S64–S69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley, C., Todd, C., Gorton, T., Symonds, E., Martin, A., & Plowright, R. (1999). The development of an individualized questionnaire measure of perceived impact of diabetes on quality of life: The ADDQoL. Quality of Life Research, 8(1–2), 79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brazeau, A. S., Rabasa-Lhoret, R., Strychar, I., & Mircescu, H. (2008). Barriers to physical activity among patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 31(11), 2108–2109.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brooks, R. (1996). EuroQol: The current state of play. Health Policy, 37(1), 53–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, A., Kennedy, L., Runge, A., & Close, K. (2016). Going beyond A1c – One outcome can’t do it all. The Diabtribe Foundation. Accessed at on 2/12/18.
  23. Brown, A. F., Ettner, S. L., Piette, J., Weinberger, M., Gregg, E., Shapiro, M. F., … Beckles, G. L. (2004). Socioeconomic position and health among persons with diabetes mellitus: A conceptual framework and review of the literature. Epidemiologic Reviews, 26(1), 63–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Browne, J. P., O'Boyle, C. A., McGee, H. M., Joyce, C. R. B., McDonald, N. J., O'Malley, K., & Hiltbrunner, B. (1994). Individual quality of life in the healthy elderly. Quality of Life Research, 3(4), 235–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cabassa, L. J., Siantz, E., Nicasio, A., Guarnaccia, P., & Lewis-Fernández, R. (2014). Contextual factors in the health of people with serious mental illness. Qualitative Health Research, 24(8), 1126–1137.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carper, M. M., Traeger, L., Gonzalez, J. S., Wexler, D. J., Psaros, C., & Safren, S. A. (2014). The differential associations of depression and diabetes distress with quality of life domains in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37(3), 501–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carr, A. J., & Higginson, I. J. (2001). Measuring quality of life: Are quality of life measures patient centred? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 322(7298), 1357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). National diabetes statistics report, 2014: Estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  29. Coffey, J. T., Brandle, M., Zhou, H., Marriott, D., Burke, R., Tabaei, B. P., … Herman, W. H. (2002). Valuing health-related quality of life in diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(12), 2238–2243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooke, D., O'Hara, M. C., Beinart, N., Heller, S., La Marca, R., Byrne, M., ... & Speight, J. (2013). Linguistic and psychometric validation of the diabetes-specific quality-of-life scale in U.K. English for adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 36(5), 1117–1125. Google Scholar
  31. DAFNE Study Group. (2002). Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: Dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. BMJ: British medical journal, 325(7367), 746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. DCCT Research Group. (1988). Reliability and validity of a diabetes quality-of-life measure for the diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT). Diabetes Care, 11(9), 725–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DCCT Research Group. (1993). The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine, 329(14), 977–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. DCCT Research Group. (1996). Influence of intensive diabetes treatment on quality-of-life outcomes in the diabetes control and complications trial. Diabetes Care, 19(3), 195–203.Google Scholar
  35. Delahanty, L. M., Grant, R. W., Wittenberg, E., Bosch, J. L., Wexler, D. J., Cagliero, E., & Meigs, J. B. (2007). Association of diabetes-related emotional distress with diabetes treatment in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 24(1), 48–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dennick, K., Sturt, J., & Speight, J. (2017). What is diabetes distress and how can we measure it? A narrative review and conceptual model. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 31(5), 898–911.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective Well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1997). Measuring quality of life: Economic, social, and subjective indicators. Social Indicators Research, 40(1–2), 189–216.Google Scholar
  39. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective Well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Diez Roux, A. V. (2012). Conceptual approaches to the study of health disparities. Annual Review of Public Health, 33, 41–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dismuke, C. E., Hernandez-Tejada, M. A., & Egede, L. E. (2014). Relationship of serious psychological distress to quality of life in adults with diabetes. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 48(2), 135–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunn, S. M., Smartt, H. H., Beeney, L. J., & Turtle, J. R. (1986). Measurement of emotional adjustment in diabetic patients: Validity and reliability of ATT39. Diabetes Care, 9(5), 480–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Duran, G., Herschbach, P., Waadt, S., Strian, F., & Zettler, A. (1995). Assessing daily problems with diabetes: A subject-oriented approach to compliance. Psychological Reports, 76(2), 515–521.Google Scholar
  45. Echeverry, D., Duran, P., Bonds, C., Lee, M., & Davidson, M. B. (2009). Effect of pharmacological treatment of depression on A1C and quality of life in low-income Hispanics and African Americans with diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 32(12), 2156–2160.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. El-Kebbi, I. M., Cook, C. B., Ziemer, D. C., Miller, C. D., Gallina, D. L., & Phillips, L. S. (2003). Association of younger age with poor glycemic control and obesity in urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(1), 69–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Engel, G. L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196(4286), 129–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Engel, G. L. (1989). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Holistic Medicine, 4(1), 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Enzlin, P., Mathieu, C., & Demyttenaere, K. (2002). Gender differences in the psychological adjustment to type 1 diabetes mellitus: An explorative study. Patient Education and Counseling, 48(2), 139–145.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Esbitt S. A., Tanenbaum M. L., & Gonzalez J. S. (2013). Disentangling clinical depression from diabetes-specific distress: Making sense of the mess we’ve made. In C. Lloyd, F. Pouwer, & N. Hermanns (Eds.), Screening for depression and other psychological problems in diabetes. Springer: London.Google Scholar
  51. EuroQol Group. (1990). EuroQol--a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy, 16(3), 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fenwick, E. K., Rees, G., Holmes-Truscott, E., Browne, J. L., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2016). What is the best measure for assessing diabetes distress? A comparison of the problem areas in diabetes and diabetes distress scale: Results from diabetes MILES–Australia. Journal of Health Psychology. 1359105316642006.Google Scholar
  53. Ferguson, W. J., & Candib, L. M. (2002). Culture, language, and the doctor-patient relationship. FMCH Publications and Presentations, 61.Google Scholar
  54. Fisher, L., Glasgow, R. E., Mullan, J. T., Skaff, M. M., & Polonsky, W. H. (2008). Development of a brief diabetes distress screening instrument. The Annals of Family Medicine, 6(3), 246–252.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Fisher, L., Glasgow, R. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2010). Distress and clinical depression with glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 33(5), 1034–1036.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fisher, L., Gonzalez, J. S., & Polonsky, W. H. (2014). The confusing tale of depression and distress in patients with diabetes: A call for greater clarity and precision. Diabetic Medicine, 31(7), 764–772.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fisher, L., Hessler, D., Polonsky, W., Strycker, L., Masharani, U., & Peters, A. (2016). Diabetes distress in adults with type 1 diabetes: Prevalence, incidence and change over time. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 30(6), 1123–1128. Scholar
  58. Fisher, L., Hessler, D. M., Polonsky, W. H., & Mullan, J. (2012). When is diabetes distress clinically meaningful? Establishing cut points for the diabetes distress scale. Diabetes Care, 35(2), 259–264.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fisher, L., Mullan, J. T., Arean, P., Glasgow, R. E., Hessler, D., & Masharani, U. (2010). Diabetes distress but not clinical depression or depressive symptoms is associated with glycemic control in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Diabetes Care, 33(1), 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fisher, L., Polonsky, W. H., Hessler, D. M., Masharani, U., Blumer, I., Peters, A. L., … Bowyer, V. (2015). Understanding the sources of diabetes distress in adults with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 29(4), 572–577.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fisher, L., Skaff, M. M., Mullan, J. T., Arean, P., Glasgow, R., & Masharani, U. (2008). A longitudinal study of affective and anxiety disorders, depressive affect and diabetes distress in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 25(9), 1096–1101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fisher, L., Skaff, M. M., Mullan, J. T., Arean, P., Mohr, D., Masharani, U., … Laurencin, G. (2007). Clinical depression versus distress among patients with type 2 diabetes: Not just a question of semantics. Diabetes Care, 30(3), 542–548.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fisher, L., Tang, T., & Polonsky, W. (2017). Assessing quality of life in diabetes: I. A practical guide to selecting the best instruments and using them wisely. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 126, 278–285.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Gariepy, G., Smith, K. J., & Schmitz, N. (2013). Diabetes distress and neighborhood characteristics in people with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 75(2), 147–152.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Gask, L., Macdonald, W., & Bower, P. (2011). What is the relationship between diabetes and depression? A qualitative meta-synthesis of patient experience of co-morbidity. Chronic Illness, 7(3), 239–252.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Gill, T. M., & Feinstein, A. R. (1994). A critical appraisal of the quality of quality-of-life measurements. JAMA, 272(8), 619–626.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Glasgow, R. E., Ruggiero, L., Eakin, E. G., Dryfoos, J., & Chobanian, L. (1997). Quality of life and associated characteristics in a large national sample of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 20(4), 562–567.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goddijn, P. P., Bilo, H. J. G., Feskens, E. J. M., Groenier, K. H., Van Der Zee, K. I., & De Jong, B. M. (1999). Longitudinal study on glycaemic control and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus referred for intensified control. Diabetic Medicine, 16(1), 23–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Goldney, R. D., Phillips, P. J., Fisher, L. J., & Wilson, D. H. (2004). Diabetes, depression, and quality of life: A population study. Diabetes Care, 27, 1066–1070.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Gonzalez, J. S., Fisher, L., & Polonsky, W. H. (2011). Depression in diabetes: Have we been missing something important? Diabetes Care, 34(1), 236–239.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gonzalez, J. S., Kane, N. S., Binko, D. H., Shapira, A., & Hoogendoorn, C. J. (2016). Tangled up in blue: Unraveling the links between emotional distress and treatment adherence in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 39(12), 2182–2189.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gonzalez, J. S., Peyrot, M., McCarl, L. A., Collins, E. M., Serpa, L., Mimiaga, M. J., & Safren, S. A. (2008). Depression and diabetes treatment nonadherence: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 31(12), 2398–2403.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gonzalez, J. S., Shreck, E., Psaros, C., & Safren, S. A. (2015). Distress and type 2 diabetes-treatment adherence: A mediating role for perceived control. Health Psychology, 34(5), 505–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Graue, M., Haugstvedt, A., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Iversen, M. M., Karlsen, B., & Rokne, B. (2012). Diabetes-related emotional distress in adults: Reliability and validity of the Norwegian versions of the problem areas in diabetes scale (PAID) and the diabetes distress scale (DDS). International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(2), 174–182.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Green, A. J., Fox, K. M., Grandy, S., & SHIELD Study Group. (2012). Self-reported hypoglycemia and impact on quality of life and depression among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 96(3), 313–318.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Guyatt, G. H., Feeny, D. H., & Patrick, D. L. (1993). Measuring health-related quality of life. Annals of Internal Medicine, 118(8), 622–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hänninen, J., Takala, J., & Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (1998). Quality of life in NIDDM patients assessed with the SF-20 questionnaire. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 42(1), 17–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Hassan, K., Loar, R., Anderson, B. J., & Heptulla, R. A. (2006). The role of socioeconomic status, depression, quality of life, and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The Journal of Pediatrics, 149(4), 526–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hermanns, N., Schmitt, A., Gahr, A., Herder, C., Nowotny, B., Roden, M., … Kulzer, B. (2015). The effect of a diabetes-specific cognitive behavioral treatment program (DIAMOS) for patients with diabetes and subclinical depression: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 38(4), 551–560.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Herschbach, P., Duran, G., Waadt, S., Zettler, A., Amm, C., Marten-Mittag, B., & Strian, F. (1997). Psychometric properties of the questionnaire on stress in patients with diabetes—Revised (QSD-R). Health Psychology, 16(2), 171.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Hessler, D., Fisher, L., Glasgow, R. E., Strycker, L. A., Dickinsom, L. M., Arean, P. A., & Masharani, U. (2014). Reductions in regimen distress are associated with improved management and glycemic control over time. Diabetes Care, 37(3), 617–624. Scholar
  82. Hessler, D. M., Fisher, L., Mullan, J. T., Glasgow, R. E., & Masharani, U. (2011). Patient age: A neglected factor when considering disease management in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patient Education and Counseling, 85(2), 154–159.Google Scholar
  83. Hickey, A., Barker, M., McGee, H., & O’boyle, C. (2005). Measuring health-related quality of life in older patient populations. PharmacoEconomics, 23(10), 971–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Huang, E. S., Brown, S. E. S., Ewigman, B. G., Foley, E. C., & Meltzer, D. O. (2007). Patient perceptions of quality of life with diabetes-related complications and treatments. Diabetes Care, 30, 2478–2483.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Huang, M., Courtney, M., Edwards, H., & McDowell, J. (2010). Validation of the Chinese version of the problem areas in diabetes (PAID-C) scale. Diabetes Care, 33, 38–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Huis in T’ Veld, E. M. J., Makine, C., Nouwen, A., Karsidag, C., Kadioglu, P., Karsidag, K., & Pouwer, F. (2011). Validation of the Turkish version of the problem areas in diabetes scale. Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology. Article ID 315068, 6 pages.Google Scholar
  87. Hunger, M., Holle, R., Meisinger, C., Rathmann, W., Peters, A., & Schunk, M. (2014). Longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life in normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: Results from the KORA S4/F4 cohort study. Quality of Life Research, 23(9), 2515–2520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Irvine SH, Wright DE, Recchia GG, De Carli G. (1994). Measuring quality of life across cultures: Some cautions and prescriptions. Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, 28, 55–62.Google Scholar
  89. Ismail-Beigi, F., Craven, T., Banerji, M. A., Basile, J., Calles, J., Cohen, R. M., … ACCORD trial group. (2010). Effect of intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: An analysis of the ACCORD randomised trial. Lancet, 376(9739), 419–430. Erratum in: Lancet, 376(9751):1466.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jacobson, A. M. (1997). Quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus. Semin. Clin. Neuropsychol., 2, 82–93.Google Scholar
  91. Jacobson, A. M., Braffett, B. H., Cleary, P. A., Gubitosi-Klug, R. A., Larkin, M. E., & DCCT/EDIC research group. (2013). The long-term effects of type 1 diabetes treatment and complications on health-related quality of life: A 23-year follow-up of the diabetes control and complications/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications cohort. Diabetes Care, 36(10), 3131–3138.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Joensen, L. E., Tapager, I., & Willaing, I. (2013). Diabetes distress in type 1 diabetes—A new measurement fit for purpose. Diabetic Medicine, 30(9), 1132–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Johnson, P. J., Ghildayal, N., Rockwood, T., & Everson-Rose, S. A. (2014). Differences in diabetes self-care activities by race/ethnicity and insulin use. The Diabetes Educator, 40(6), 767–777.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kartal, A., & İnci, F. H. (2011). A cross-sectional survey of self-perceived health status and metabolic control values in patients with type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48(2), 227–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Katschnig, H. (1997). How useful is the concept of quality of life in psychiatry? In H. Katschnig, H. Freeman, & N. Sartorius (Eds.), Quality of life in mental disorders (pp. 3–15). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  96. Kelly, T. N., Bazzano, L. A., Fonseca, V. A., Thethi, T. K., Reynolds, K., & He, J. (2009). Systematic review: Glucose control and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(6), 394–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Khanna, A., Bush, A. L., Swint, J. M., Peskin, M. F., Street, R. L., & Naik, A. D. (2012). Hemoglobin A1c improvements and better diabetes-specific quality of life among participants completing diabetes self-management programs: A nested cohort study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10(1), 48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kumari, M., Head, J., & Marmot, M. (2004). Prospective study of social and other risk factors for incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Whitehall II study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(17), 1873–1880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lau, C. Y., Qureshi, A. K., & Scott, S. G. (2004). Association between glycaemic control and quality of life in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 50(3), 189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Coping and adaptation. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), The handbook of behavioral medicine (pp. 282–325). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  101. LeBron, A. M., Valerio, M. A., Kieffer, E., Sinco, B., Rosland, A. M., Hawkins, J., … Spencer, M. (2014). Everyday discrimination, diabetes-related distress, and depressive symptoms among African Americans and Latinos with diabetes. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 16(6), 1208–1216.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lee, H. J., Chapa, D., Kao, C. W., Jones, D., Kapustin, J., Smith, J., … Friedmann, E. (2009). Depression, quality of life, and glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Journal of the American association of nurse practitioners, 21(4), 214–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lee, J., Lee, E. H., Kim, C. J., & Moon, S. H. (2015). Diabetes-related emotional distress instruments: A systematic review of measurement properties. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(12), 1868–1878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Leventhal, H., & Colman, S. (1997). Quality of life: A process view. Psychology and Health, 12(6), 753–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lipska, K. J., Ross, J. S., Miao, Y., Shah, N. D., Lee, S. J., & Steinman, M. A. (2015). Potential overtreatment of diabetes mellitus in older adults with tight glycemic control. JAMA Internal Medicine, 175(3), 356–362.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lloyd, A., Sawyer, W., & Hopkinson, P. (2001). Impact of long-term complications on quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes not using insulin. Value in Health, 4(5), 392–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lustman, P. J., Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., De Groot, M., Carney, R. M., & Clouse, R. E. (2000). Depression and poor glycemic control: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Diabetes Care, 23(7), 934–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Maddigan, S. L., Feeny, D. H., & Johnson, J. A. (2005). Health-related quality of life deficits associated with diabetes and comorbidities in a Canadian National Population Health Survey. Quality of Life Research, 14(5), 1311–1320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Marrett, E., Radican, L., Davies, M. J., & Zhang, Q. (2011). Assessment of severity and frequency of self-reported hypoglycemia on quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents: A survey study. BMC Research Notes, 4(1), 251.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McGee, H. M., O'Boyle, C. A., Hickey, A., O'Malley, K., & Joyce, C. R. B. (1991). Assessing the quality of life of the individual: The SEIQoL with a healthy and a gastroenterology unit population. Psychological Medicine, 21(3), 749–759.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Miller, S. A., & Elasy, T. A. (2008). Psychometric evaluation of the problem areas in diabetes (PAID) survey in southern, rural African American women with type 2 diabetes. BMC Public Health, 8(70), 1–6.Google Scholar
  112. Misra, R., & Lager, J. (2008). Predictors of quality of life among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 22(3), 217–223.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Montori, V. M., Gafni, A., & Charles, C. (2006). A shared treatment decision-making approach between patients with chronic conditions and their clinicians: The case of diabetes. Health Expectations, 9(1), 25–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Moons, P. (2004). Why call it health-related quality of life when you mean perceived health status? European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 3(4), 275–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mora, P., Buskirk, A., Lyden, M., Parkin, C. G., Borsa, L., & Petersen, B. (2017). Use of a novel, remotely connected diabetes management system is associated with increased treatment satisfaction, reduced diabetes distress, and improved glycemic control in individuals with insulin-treated diabetes: First results from the personal diabetes management study. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 19(12), 715–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Moss-Morris, R., Weinman, J., Petrie, K. J., Horne, R., Cameron, L. D., & Buick, D. (2002). The revised illness perception questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychology & Health, 17, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Narayan, K. V., Boyle, J. P., Thompson, T. J., Sorensen, S. W., & Williamson, D. F. (2003). Lifetime risk for diabetes mellitus in the United States. JAMA, 290(14), 1884–1890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Nathan, D. M., Bayless, M., Cleary, P., Genuth, S., Gubitosi-Klug, R., . . . & DCCT/EDIC Research Group. (2013). Diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study at 30 years: Advances and contributions. Diabetes, 62(12), 3976–3986.Google Scholar
  119. Nathan, D. M., Fogel, H., Norman, D., et al. (1991). Long term metabolic and quality of life results with pancreatic/ renal transplantation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Transplantation, 52, 85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Nerenz, D. R., Repasky, D. P., Whitehouse, F. W., & Kahkonen, D. M. (1992). Ongoing assessment of health status in patients with diabetes mellitus. Medical Care, 30(5), MS112–MS124.Google Scholar
  121. Neumann, A., Schoffer, O., Norström, F., Norberg, M., Klug, S. J., & Lindholm, L. (2014). Health-related quality of life for pre-diabetic states and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study in Västerbotten Sweden. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 150.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nezu, S., Okamoto, N., Morikawa, M., Saeki, K., Obayashi, K., Tomioka, K., et al. (2014). Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) decreases independently of chronic conditions and geriatric syndromes in older adults with diabetes: The Fujiwara-kyo study. Journal of Epidemiology, 24, 259–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pandit, A. U., Bailey, S. C., Curtis, L. M., Seligman, H. K., Davis, T. C., Parker, R. M., … Wolf, M. S. (2014). Disease-related distress, self-care and clinical outcomes among low-income patients with diabetes. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 68(6), 557–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Perrin, N. E., Davies, M. J., Robertson, N., Snoek, F. J., & Khunti, K. (2017). The prevalence of diabetes-specific emotional distress in people with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetic Medicine, 34(11), 1508–1520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Peyrot, M., & Rubin, R. R. (2007). Behavioral and psychosocial interventions in diabetes: A conceptual review. Diabetes Care, 30(10), 2433–2440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Polonsky, W. H. (2000). Understanding and assessing diabetes-specific quality of life. Diabetes spectrum, 13(1), 36.Google Scholar
  127. Polonsky, W. H., Anderson, B. J., Lohrer, P. A., Welch, G., Jacobson, A. M., Aponte, J. E., & Schwartz, C. E. (1995). Assessment of diabetes-related distress. Diabetes Care, 18(6), 754–760.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Polonsky, W. H., Fisher, L., Guzman, S., Villa-Caballero, L., & Edelman, S. V. (2005a). Psychological insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes the scope of the problem. Diabetes Care, 28(10), 2543–2545.Google Scholar
  129. Polonsky, W. H., Fisher, L., Earles, J., Dudl, R. J., Lees, J., Mullan, J., & Jackson, R. A. (2005b). Assessing psychosocial distress in diabetes: Development of the diabetes distress scale. Diabetes Care, 28(3), 626–631.Google Scholar
  130. Polonsky, W. H., Fisher, L., Hessler, D., & Johnson, N. (2016). Emotional distress in the partners of type 1 diabetes adults: Worries about hypoglycemia and other key concerns. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 18(5), 292–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Quinn, C. C., Swasey, K. K., Crabbe, J. C. F., Shardell, M. D., Terrin, M. L., Barr, E. A., & Gruber-Baldini, A. L. (2017). The impact of a Mobile diabetes health intervention on diabetes distress and depression among adults: Secondary analysis of a cluster randomized controlled trial. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 5(12).Google Scholar
  132. Rabkin, J. G., & Struening, E. L. (1976). Life events, stress, and illness. Science, 194(4269), 1013–1020.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Redekop, W. K., Koopmanschap, M. A., Stolk, R. P., Rutten, G. E., Wolffenbuttel, B. H., & Niessen, L. W. (2002). Health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction in Dutch patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(3), 458–463.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Rubin, R. R., & Peyrot, M. (1999). Quality of life and diabetes. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 15(3), 205–218.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rubin, R. R., Peyrot, M., Kruger, D. F., & Travis, L. B. (2009). Barriers to insulin injection therapy patient and health care provider perspectives. The Diabetes Educator, 35(6), 1014–1022.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Schmitt, A., Reimer, A., Kulzer, B., Haak, T., Ehrmann, D., & Hermanns, N. (2016). How to assess diabetes distress: Comparison of the problem areas in diabetes scale (PAID) and the diabetes distress scale (DDS). Diabetic Medicine, 33(6), 835–843.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Schmitt, A., Reimer, A., Kulzer, B., Haak, T., Gahr, A., & Hermanns, N. (2015). Negative association between depression and diabetes control only when accompanied by diabetes-specific distress. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38(3), 556–564.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Selye, H. (1974). Stress without distress (pp. 26–39). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  139. Seppälä, T., Saxen, U., Kautiainen, H., Järvenpää, S., & Korhonen, P. E. (2013). Impaired glucose metabolism and health related quality of life. Primary Care Diabetes, 7(3), 223–227.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Shallcross, A., Ojie, M.-J., Chaplin, W., Levy, N., Odedosu, T., Ogedegbe, G., et al. (2015). Race/ethnicity moderates the relationship between chronic life stress and quality of life in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 108, 150–156.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Snoek, F. J., Bremmer, M. A., & Hermanns, N. (2015). Constructs of depression and distress in diabetes: Time for an appraisal. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 3(6), 450–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Snoek, F. J., Pouwer, F., Welch, G. W., & Polonsky, W. H. (2000). Diabetes-related emotional distress in Dutch and U.S. diabetic patients: Cross-cultural validity of the problem areas in diabetes scale. Diabetes Care, 23(9), 1305–1309.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Spanakis, E. K., & Golden, S. H. (2013). Race/ethnic difference in diabetes and diabetic complications. Current Diabetes Reports, 13(6), 814–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Speight J, & Bradley C. (2002). The W-BQ28 measure of generic and diabetes-specific well-being is shown to be reliable, valid and sensitive to change in DIABQoL+ and DAFNE studies. Paper presented at the Diabetes UK Professional Conference.Google Scholar
  145. Speight, J., Khagram, L. A., & Davies, M. J. (2012). Generic and diabetes-specific Well-being in the AT.LANTUS follow-on study: Further psychometric validation of the W-BQ28 indicates its utility in research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes in the UK. Diabetic Medicine, 29, e345–e353.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Speight, J., Reaney, M. D., & Barnard, K. D. (2009). Not all roads lead to Rome—A review of quality of life measurement in adults with diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 26(4), 315–327.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Stoop, C. H., Nefs, G., Pop, V. J., Wijnands-van Gent, C. J., Tack, C. J., Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P. H., … Pouwer, F. (2014). Diabetes-specific emotional distress in people with type 2 diabetes: A comparison between primary and secondary care. Diabetic Medicine, 31(10), 1252–1259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Strandberg, R. B., Graue, M., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Peyrot, M., & Rokne, B. (2014). Relationships of diabetes-specific emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and overall Well-being with HbA1c in adult persons with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 77(3), 174–179.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Strine, T. W., Chapman, D. P., Balluz, L. S., Moriarty, D. G., & Mokdad, A. H. (2008). The associations between life satisfaction and health-related quality of life, chronic illness, and health behaviors among US community-dwelling adults. Journal of Community Health, 33(1), 40–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sundaram, M., Kavookjian, J., Patrick, J. H., Miller, L. A., Madhavan, S. S., & Scott, V. G. (2007). Quality of life, health status and clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients. Quality of Life Research, 16(2), 165–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Svenningsson, I., Marklund, B., Attvall, S., & Gedda, B. (2011). Type 2 diabetes: Perceptions of quality of life and attitudes towards diabetes from a gender perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 25(4), 688–695.Google Scholar
  152. Tanenbaum, M. L., & Gonzalez, J. S. (2012). The influence of diabetes on a clinician-rated assessment of depression in adults with type 1 diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 38(5), 695–704.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Tanenbaum, M. L., Kane, N. S., Kenowitz, J., & Gonzalez, J. S. (2016). Diabetes distress from the patient’s perspective: Qualitative themes and treatment regimen differences among adults with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 30(6), 1060–1068.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tanenbaum, M. L., Ritholz, M. D., Binko, D. H., Baek, R. N., Shreck, M. E., & Gonzalez, J. S. (2013). Probing for depression and finding diabetes: A mixed-methods analysis of depression interviews with adults treated for type 2 diabetes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(2), 533–539.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Testa, M. A., & Simonson, D. C. (1996). Assessment of quality-of-life outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 334(13), 835–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Tol, A., Sharifirad, G., Eslami, A., Shojaeizadeh, D., Alhani, F., & Tehrani, M. M. (2015). Analysis of some predictive factors of quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 4, 9.Google Scholar
  157. Tsui, E., Barnie, A., Ross, S., Parkes, R., & Zinman, B. (2001). Intensive insulin therapy with insulin lispro: A randomized trial of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily insulin injection. Diabetes Care, 24(10), 1722–1727.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. (1998). Intensive blood glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet, 352, 837–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. UKPDS Group. (1999). Quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients is affected by complications but not by intensive policies to improve blood glucose or blood pressure control (UKPDS 37). Diabetes Care, 22(7), 1125–1136. Google Scholar
  160. Undén, A. L., Elofsson, S., Andréasson, A., Hillered, E., Eriksson, I., & Brismar, K. (2008). Gender differences in self-rated health, quality of life, quality of care, and metabolic control in patients with diabetes. Gender Medicine, 5(2), 162–180.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2006). Guidance for industry: patient-reported outcome measures: use in medical product development to support labeling claims: draft guidance. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 4, 1–20. Google Scholar
  162. Väätäinen, S., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Saramies, J., Uusitalo, H., Tuomilehto, J., & Martikainen, J. (2014). Quality of life along the diabetes continuum: A cross-sectional view of health-related quality of life and general health status in middle-aged and older Finns. Quality of Life Research, 23(7), 1935–1944.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Van Bastelaar, K. M. P., Pouwer, F., Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P. H. L. M., Tack, C. J., Bazelmans, E., Beekman, A. T., … Snoek, F. J. (2010). Diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the association between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 27(7), 798–803.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Vijan, S., Hayward, R. A., Ronis, D. L., & Hofer, T. P. (2005). Brief report: The burden of diabetes therapy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(5), 479–482.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Vileikyte, L., Peyrot, M., Bundy, C., Rubin, R. R., Leventhal, H., Mora, P., … Boulton, A. J. (2003). The development and validation of a neuropathy-and foot ulcer-specific quality of life instrument. Diabetes Care, 26(9), 2549–2555.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Walker, J., & Bradley, C. (2002). Assessing the quality of life of adolescents with diabetes: Using the SEIQoL, DQoL, patient and diabetes specialist nurse ratings. Practical Diabetes, 19(5), 141–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Weinberger, M., Kirkman, M. S., Samsa, G. P., Cowper, P. A., Shortliffe, E. A., Simel, D. L., & Feussner, J. R. (1994). The relationship between glycemic control and health-related quality of life in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Medical Care, 32, 1173–1181.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Weinman, J., Petrie, K., Moss-Morris, R., & Horne, R. (1996). The illness perception questionnaire: A new method for assessing the cognitive representations of illness. Psychology & Health, 11, 431–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Welch, G., Weinger, K., Anderson, B., & Polonsky, W. H. (2003). Responsiveness of the problem areas in diabetes (PAID) questionnaire. Diabetic Medicine, 20(1), 69–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Welch, G. W., Jacobson, A. M., & Polonsky, W. H. (1997). The problem areas in diabetes scale. An evaluation of its clinical utility. Diabetes Care, 20(5), 760–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Wexler, D. J., Grant, R. W., Wittenberg, E., Bosch, J. L., Cagliero, E., Delahanty, L., … Meigs, J. B. (2006). Correlates of health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 49(7), 1489–1497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. WHOQOL Group. (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28(3), 551–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Wikblad, K., Leksell, J., & Wibell, L. (1996). Health-related quality of life in relation to metabolic control and late complications in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Quality of Life Research, 5(1), 123–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wilson, I. B., & Cleary, P. D. (1995). Linking clinical variables with health-related quality of life: A conceptual model of patient outcomes. JAMA, 273(1), 59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Woodcock, A., Bradley, C., Plowright, R., Kennedy-Martin, T., & Hirsch, A. (2004). The influence of diabetic retinopathy on quality of life: Interviews to guide the design of a condition-specific, individualised questionnaire: The RetDQoL. Patient Education and Counseling, 53(3), 365–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. World Health Organization (1946). Constitution of the World Health Organization. International Health Conference, New York, 19 June to 22 July.Google Scholar
  177. Yanai, H., Adachi, H., Katsuyama, H., Moriyama, S., Hamasaki, H., & Sako, A. (2015). Causative anti-diabetic drugs and the underlying clinical factors for hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes. World Journal of Diabetes, 6(1), 30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Young-Hyman, D., de Groot, M., Hill-Briggs, F., Gonzalez, J. S., Hood, K., & Peyrot, M. (2017). Psychosocial Care for People with Diabetes: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 39(12), 2126–2140. Review. Erratum in: Diabetes Care. 2017 Feb;40(2):287. Diabetes Care. 2017 May;40(5):726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Yudkin, J. S., Lipska, K. J., & Montori, V. M. (2011). The idolatry of the surrogate. BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online), 343.Google Scholar
  180. Zagarins, S. E., Allen, N. A., Garb, J. L., & Welch, G. (2012). Improvement in glycemic control following a diabetes education intervention is associated with change in diabetes distress but not change in depressive symptoms. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Zoffmann, V., Vistisen, D., & Due-Christensen, M. (2014). A cross-sectional study of glycaemic control, complications and psychosocial functioning among 18-to 35-year-old adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 31(4), 493–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire J. Hoogendoorn
    • 1
  • Amit Shapira
    • 1
  • Juan F. Roy
    • 1
  • Naomi S. Kane
    • 1
  • Jeffrey S. Gonzalez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Ferkauf Graduate School of PsychologyYeshiva UniversityBronxUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Medicine (Endocrinology) & Epidemiology and Population HealthAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  3. 3.The Fleischer Institute for Diabetes and MetabolismAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  4. 4.New York Regional Center for Diabetes Translation ResearchAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations