Water Quality Assessment Techniques

  • Priti Saha
  • Biswajit Paul
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 40)


Water is a major resource for the sustenance of the living organisms. However, water resources are exploited to satisfy the demand of the growing population for drinking, domestic activities as well as economic expansion of the nation through industries, irrigation and other activities. This led to scarcity of fresh water and impacts on economy, environment and human health. This review details the standard limit of major cations, anions and heavy metals recommended by various organizations, as well as sources and health impacts. It also describes water quality assessment steps. Therefore, it draws an attention to develop interdisciplinary techniques to minimize the large data volume into an understandable format. The suitability of water for drinking, irrigation and industries through indices, health risk assessment through mathematical model, and source identification through statistical procedures as well as application of geostatistics are also reviewed. It reveals that water quality index is very effective technique to determine the suitability of water but it is limited to drinking water quality only. Moreover, the conventional indices evaluating the suitability of water for irrigation or industries does not clearly specify the status as these indices does not aggregate all required compounds. Even, the existing assessment techniques do not estimate the required percentage of pollutants to be removed from the water bodies.


Water pollution Pollutants Irrigation Health impact Data management Geographical information system (GIS) 



Percent sodium


Average Dose


Analytical hierarchy process


Bureau of Indian Standard


Cluster Analysis


Council of Minister of the Environmental Water Quality Index


Chronic daily intake


Central Pollution Control Board


Corrositivity ratio


Electrical conductivity


Environmental Protection Agency


Council of the European Union


Factor analysis


Geographical information system


Hazard index


Hazard quotient


International Organization for Standardization


Lowest observed adverse effect level


Langelier saturation index


Magnesium hazard


No observable toxic effect


No guideline limit


Not mentioned


National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index


Oregon water quality index


Principal component


Principal component analysis


Permeability index


Practical scale index


Reference dose


Residual sodium carbonate


Ryznar stability index


Sodium adsorption ratio


Slope factor


Total dissolved solid


United States Environment Protection Agency


Weight Arithmetic Water Quality Index


World Health Organization


Water Quality Index


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priti Saha
    • 1
  • Biswajit Paul
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

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