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Water Quality Assessment Techniques

  • Priti Saha
  • Biswajit Paul
Chapter
  • 22 Downloads
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 40)

Abstract

Water is a major resource for the sustenance of the living organisms. However, water resources are exploited to satisfy the demand of the growing population for drinking, domestic activities as well as economic expansion of the nation through industries, irrigation and other activities. This led to scarcity of fresh water and impacts on economy, environment and human health. This review details the standard limit of major cations, anions and heavy metals recommended by various organizations, as well as sources and health impacts. It also describes water quality assessment steps. Therefore, it draws an attention to develop interdisciplinary techniques to minimize the large data volume into an understandable format. The suitability of water for drinking, irrigation and industries through indices, health risk assessment through mathematical model, and source identification through statistical procedures as well as application of geostatistics are also reviewed. It reveals that water quality index is very effective technique to determine the suitability of water but it is limited to drinking water quality only. Moreover, the conventional indices evaluating the suitability of water for irrigation or industries does not clearly specify the status as these indices does not aggregate all required compounds. Even, the existing assessment techniques do not estimate the required percentage of pollutants to be removed from the water bodies.

Keywords

Water pollution Pollutants Irrigation Health impact Data management Geographical information system (GIS) 

Abbreviations

%Na

Percent sodium

AD

Average Dose

AHP

Analytical hierarchy process

BIS

Bureau of Indian Standard

CA

Cluster Analysis

CCMEWQI

Council of Minister of the Environmental Water Quality Index

CDI

Chronic daily intake

CPCB

Central Pollution Control Board

CR

Corrositivity ratio

EC

Electrical conductivity

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EU

Council of the European Union

FA

Factor analysis

GIS

Geographical information system

HI

Hazard index

HQ

Hazard quotient

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

LOAEL

Lowest observed adverse effect level

LSI

Langelier saturation index

MH

Magnesium hazard

NOAEL

No observable toxic effect

NGL

No guideline limit

NM

Not mentioned

NSFWQI

National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index

OWQI

Oregon water quality index

PC

Principal component

PCA

Principal component analysis

PI

Permeability index

PSI

Practical scale index

RfD

Reference dose

RSC

Residual sodium carbonate

RSI

Ryznar stability index

SAR

Sodium adsorption ratio

SF

Slope factor

TDS

Total dissolved solid

USEPA

United States Environment Protection Agency

WAWQI

Weight Arithmetic Water Quality Index

WHO

World Health Organization

WQI

Water Quality Index

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priti Saha
    • 1
  • Biswajit Paul
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

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