Synthesis of Nanofertilizers by Planetary Ball Milling

  • Chwadaka Pohshna
  • Damodhara Rao MailapalliEmail author
  • Tapas Laha
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 40)


Plant nutrients supplied to crops as fertilizers are essential for plant growth, metabolism and production. Inappropriate application of plant nutrients induces 40–70% loss of nutrients and causes contamination of land and water systems. Nano-fertilizers provide nutrients precisely to the plant’s requirement, and thus reduces the environmental loss of nutrients. Synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by either top-down or bottom-up methods. Most nanofertilizers are synthesized by a bottom-up approach, which is a complex and requires sophisticated instruments. The top-down approach is an alternative method for large scale and low cost of production. For instance, high energy ball milling is a top-down method using planetary ball mills. To obtain optimized milling parameters in a planetary ball mill, many trials are needed. Hence optimization of the milling parameters through modeling tools is necessary to reach economically efficient and time-saving synthesis of nano-fertilizers. Here we review modeling approaches using the planetary ball milling principle for the efficient synthesis of nano-fertilizers.


Nanomaterials Planetary ball milling Mathematical models Plant nutrients Top-down method Nano-fertilizers 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chwadaka Pohshna
    • 1
  • Damodhara Rao Mailapalli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tapas Laha
    • 2
  1. 1.Agricultural and Food Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Metallurgical and Materials Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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