A Review of Motivational Systems and Emotions in Cognitive Architectures and Systems

  • Ricardo R. GudwinEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11866)


Motivational Systems are specific modules of Cognitive Architectures, responsible for determining the behavior of artificial agents based on cognitive models of human motivations and emotions. In this work we discuss how these ideas coming from psychology can be used in the field of cognitive architectures, explaining how motivational systems differ from other kinds of systems, and how they can be used to build control systems for artificial agents.


Motivational systems Emotions Cognitive architectures Intelligent systems 



The authors thank Ericsson Research Brazil, Ericsson Telecomunicações S.A. Brazil (Proc. FUNCAMP 4881.7) and CEPID/BRAINN (Proc. FAPESP 2013/07559-3) for supporting this research.


  1. Arnold, M.B.: Emotion and Personality. Columbia University Press, New York (1960)Google Scholar
  2. Bach, J.: Modeling motivation in MicroPsi 2. In: Bieger, J., Goertzel, B., Potapov, A. (eds.) AGI 2015. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 9205, pp. 3–13. Springer, Cham (2015). Scholar
  3. Barrett, L.F.: Discrete emotions or dimensions? The role of valence focus and arousal focus. Cogn. Emot. 12(4), 579–599 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates, J., et al.: The role of emotion in believable agents. Commun. ACM 37(7), 122–125 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumeister, R.F.: Toward a general theory of motivation: problems, challenges, opportunities, and the big picture. Motiv. Emot. 40(1), 1–10 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berridge, K.C., Robinson, T.E., Aldridge, J.W.: Dissecting components of reward: ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 9(1), 65–73 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blumberg, B.M.: Old tricks, new dogs: ethology and interactive creatures. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1997)Google Scholar
  8. Breazeal, C., et al.: A motivational system for regulating human-robot interaction. In: AAAI/IAAI, pp. 54–61 (1998)Google Scholar
  9. Buck, R.: Human Motivation and Emotion. Wiley, Chichester (1988)Google Scholar
  10. Cabanac, M.: What is emotion? Behav. Process. 60(2), 69–83 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cañamero, L.: A hormonal model of emotions for behavior control. In: VUB AI-Lab Memo 2006, pp. 1–10 (1997)Google Scholar
  12. Cañamero, L.: Issues in the design of emotional agents. In: Emotional and Intelligent: The Tangled Knot of Cognition. Papers from the 1998 AAAI Fall Symposium, pp. 49–54 (1998)Google Scholar
  13. Cañamero, L.: Emotions and adaptation in autonomous agents: a design perspective. Cybern. Syst. 32(5), 507–529 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cañamero, L.: Designing emotions for activity selection in autonomous agents. Emot. Hum. Artifacts 115, 148 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. Cañamero, L.: Emotion understanding from the perspective of autonomous robots research. Neural Netw. 18(4), 445–455 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornelius, R.R.: Theoretical approaches to emotion. In: ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop (ITRW) on Speech and Emotion (2000)Google Scholar
  17. Damasio, A.R.: Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. Penguin Books, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  18. Damasio, A.R.: The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harcourt, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  19. Damasio, A.R.: Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. William Heinemann, London (2003)Google Scholar
  20. Darwin, C.: The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. John Murray, Albermarle St., London (1872)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dixon, T.: From Passions to Emotions: The Creation of a Secular Psychological Category. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dixon, T.: “Emotion”: the history of a keyword in crisis. Emot. Rev. 4(4), 338–344 (2012)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. El-Nasr, M.S.: Modeling emotion dynamics in intelligent agents. Ph.D. thesis, Texas A & M University (1998)Google Scholar
  24. El-Nasr, M.S., Yen, J., Ioerger, T.R.: Flame-fuzzy logic adaptive model of emotions. Auton. Agents Multi-Agent Syst. 3(3), 219–257 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goleman, D.: Emotional intelligence. Bantam Books, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  26. Hull, C.L.: Principles of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. Appleton-Century, Oxford (1943)Google Scholar
  27. Hull, C.L.: A Behavior System; An Introduction to Behavior Theory Concerning the Individual Organism. Yale University Press, New Haven (1952)Google Scholar
  28. Izard, C.E.: The many meanings/aspects of emotion: definitions, functions, activation, and regulation. Emot. Rev. 2(4), 363–370 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. James, S.: Passion and Action: The Emotions in Seventeenth-Century Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997)Google Scholar
  30. James, W.: What is an emotion? Mind 9, 188–205 (1884)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson, G.: Theories of emotion. In: Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource (2009)Google Scholar
  32. Koda, T., Maes, P.: Agents with faces: the effect of personification, In: Proceedings 5th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication. RO-MAN 1996, Tsukuba, pp. 189–194. IEEE (1996)Google Scholar
  33. Malfaz, M., Salichs, M.A.: A new architecture for autonomous robots based on emotions. In: Fifth IFAC Symposium on Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles. Citeseer (2004)Google Scholar
  34. Maslow, A.H.: A theory of human motivation. Psychol. Rev. 50(4), 370 (1943)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McCall, R.J.: Fundamental motivation and perception for a systems-level cognitive architecture. Ph.D. thesis, University of Memphis (2014)Google Scholar
  36. Mehrabian, A.: Pleasure-arousal-dominance: a general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament. Curr. Psychol. 14(4), 261–292 (1996)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meyer, J.-J.C.: Reasoning about emotional agents. Int. J. Intell. Syst. 21(6), 601–619 (2006)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moors, A., Ellsworth, P.C., Scherer, K.R., Frijda, N.H.: Appraisal theories of emotion: state of the art and future development. Emot. Rev. 5(2), 119–124 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ortony, A.: On making believable emotional agents believable. In: Trappl, R., Petta, P., Payr, S. (eds.) Emotions in Humans and Artifacts, Chap. 6, pp. 189–212. Bradford Book, MIT Press, Cambridge, London (2002)Google Scholar
  40. Ortony, A., Clore, G.L., Collins, A.: The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1990)Google Scholar
  41. Panksepp, J.: Toward a general psychobiological theory of emotions. Behav. Brain Sci. 5(3), 407–422 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pezzulo, G., Verschure, P.F., Balkenius, C., Pennartz, C.M.: The principles of goal-directed decision-making: from neural mechanisms to computation and robotics. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 369(1655), 20130470 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Picard, R.W.: Affective Computing. MIT Press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  44. Pool, E., Sennwald, V., Delplanque, S., Brosch, T., Sander, D.: Measuring wanting and liking from animals to humans: a systematic review. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 63, 124–142 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Posner, J., Russell, J.A., Peterson, B.S.: The circumplex model of affect: an integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology. Dev. Psychopathol. 17(3), 715–734 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reeve, J.: A grand theory of motivation: why not? Motiv. Emot. 40(1), 31–35 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reilly, W.S.: Believable social and emotional agents. Ph.D. thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (1996)Google Scholar
  48. Reisenzein, R.: Pleasure-arousal theory and the intensity of emotions. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 67(3), 525 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rorty, A.O.: From passions to emotions and sentiments. Philosophy 57(220), 159–172 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Russell, J.A.: A circumplex model of affect. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 39(6), 1161 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Russell, J.A., Mehrabian, A.: Evidence for a three-factor theory of emotions. J. Res. Pers. 11(3), 273–294 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sarmento, L.M.: An emotion-based agent architecture. Master’s thesis, FC University of Porto, Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science (2004)Google Scholar
  53. Schlosberg, H.: Three dimensions of emotion. Psychol. Rev. 61(2), 81 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Simon, H.A.: Motivational and emotional controls of cognition. Psychol. Rev. 74(1), 29 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sloman, A.: Motives, mechanisms, and emotions. Cogn. Emot. 1(3), 217–233 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sloman, A.: Prolegomena to a theory of communication and affect. In: Ortony, A., Slack, J., Stock, O. (eds.) Communication from an Artificial Intelligence Perspective, pp. 229–260. Springer, Heidelberg (1992). Scholar
  57. Sloman, A.: Damasio, descartes, alarms and meta-management. In: SMC 1998: Conference Proceedings of 1998 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No. 98CH36218), vol. 3, pp. 2652–2657. IEEE (1998)Google Scholar
  58. Sloman, A., Croucher, M.: Why robots will have emotions. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1, pp. 197–202. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. (1981)Google Scholar
  59. Sloman, A., et al.: Beyond shallow models of emotion. Cogn. Process. 2(1), 177–198 (2001)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  60. Sun, R.: Motivational representations within a computational cognitive architecture. Cogn. Comput. 1(1), 91–103 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Toates, F.M.: Motivational Systems. Propblems in the Behavioral Sciences, vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1986)Google Scholar
  62. Tomlinson, B., Blumberg, B.: Social synthetic characters. Comput. Graph. 26(2), 5–7 (2002)Google Scholar
  63. Velásquez, J.: A computational framework for emotion-based control. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Grounding Emotions in Adaptive Systems. International Conference on SAB, pp. 62–67 (1998)Google Scholar
  64. Velásquez, J.D.: From affect programs to higher cognitive emotions: An emotion-based control approach. In: Proceedings of the Emotion-Based Agent Architecture Workshop at the International Conference on Autonomous Agents, pp. 114–120. Citeseer (1999)Google Scholar
  65. Ventura, R.: Emotion-based agents. Master’s thesis, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal (2000)Google Scholar
  66. Wallach, W., Allen, C.: Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2008)Google Scholar
  67. Ziemke, T., Lowe, R.: On the role of emotion in embodied cognitive architectures: from organisms to robots. Cogn. Comput. 1(1), 104–117 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DCA-FEEC-UNICAMPCampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations