Events as Entities in Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling

  • João Paulo A. AlmeidaEmail author
  • Ricardo A. Falbo
  • Giancarlo Guizzardi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11788)


The Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) has been used to provide foundations for the major conceptual modeling constructs. This ontology has led to the OntoUML Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling language, a UML class diagram profile reflecting the ontological micro-theories comprising UFO. So far, the focus of OntoUML has been on the representation of structural aspects of a domain (endurant types and their relations), corresponding to a fragment of UFO dubbed UFO-A. This paper extends OntoUML by addressing the representation of event types, reflecting the UFO-B foundational ontology of events. Based on the ontological distinctions and axiomatization provided by UFO-B, we define new OntoUML constructs and guidelines for the conceptual modeling of events and event relations in structural conceptual models.


OntoUML Events Ontology-driven conceptual modeling 



This work has been partially supported by CNPq (407235/2017-5, 312123/2017-5), CAPES (23038.028816/2016-41), FAPES (69382549) and FUB (OCEAN Project).


  1. 1.
    Allen, G.N., March, S.T.: The ontological treatment of the ‘Event’ construct: implications for system analysis and design. In: Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Research Systems Analysis and Design (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen, G.N., March, S.T.: The effects of state-based and event-based data representation on user performance in query formulation tasks. MIS Q. 30, 269–290 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allen, J.F.: Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals. Commun. ACM 26(11), 832–843 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benevides, A.B., Bourguet, J.R., Guizzardi, G., Peñaloza, R., Almeida, J.P.A.: Representing a reference foundational ontology of events in SROIQ. Appl. Ontol. 14(3), 293–334 (2019). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bock, C., Odell, J.: Ontological behavior modeling. J. Object Technol. 10(3), 1–36 (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cabot, J., Olivé, A., Teniente, E.: Representing temporal information in UML. In: Stevens, P., Whittle, J., Booch, G. (eds.) UML 2003. LNCS, vol. 2863, pp. 44–59. Springer, Heidelberg (2003). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carvalho, V.A., Almeida, J.P.A., Guizzardi, G.: Using reference domain ontologies to define the real-world semantics of domain-specific languages. In: Jarke, M., et al. (eds.) CAiSE 2014. LNCS, vol. 8484, pp. 488–502. Springer, Cham (2014). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Galton, A.: Processes as continuants (abstract). In: Thirteenth International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME 2006), p. 187, June 2006Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guarino, N., Guizzardi, G.: “We need to discuss the relationship”: revisiting relationships as modeling constructs. In: Zdravkovic, J., Kirikova, M., Johannesson, P. (eds.) CAiSE 2015. LNCS, vol. 9097, pp. 279–294. Springer, Cham (2015). Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guizzardi, G.: Ontological foundations for structural conceptual models. Ph.D. thesis, CTIT, Centre for Telematics and Information Technology, Enschede (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guizzardi, G., Fonseca, C.M., Benevides, A.B., Almeida, J.P.A., Porello, D., Sales, T.P.: Endurant types in ontology-driven conceptual modeling: towards OntoUML 2.0. In: Trujillo, J., et al. (eds.) ER 2018. LNCS, vol. 11157, pp. 136–150. Springer, Cham (2018). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guizzardi, G., Guarino, N., Almeida, J.P.A.: Ontological considerations about the representation of events and endurants in business models. In: La Rosa, M., Loos, P., Pastor, O. (eds.) BPM 2016. LNCS, vol. 9850, pp. 20–36. Springer, Cham (2016). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guizzardi, G., Wagner, G., Falbo, R.A., Guizzardi, R.S.S., Almeida, J.P.A.: Towards ontological foundations for the conceptual modeling of events. In: Ng, W., Storey, V.C., Trujillo, J.C. (eds.) ER 2013. LNCS, vol. 8217, pp. 327–341. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guizzardi, G., et al.: Towards ontological foundations for conceptual modeling: the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) story. Appl. Ontol. 10(3–4), 259–271 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lyons, J.: Semantics, vol. 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nardi, J.C., et al.: A commitment-based reference ontology for services. Inf. Syst. 54, 263–288 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Olivé, A., Raventós, R.: Modeling events as entities in object-oriented conceptual modeling languages. Data Knowl. Eng. 58(3), 243–262 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pribbenow, S.: Parts and wholes and their relations. In: Mental Models in Discourse Processing and Reasoning. Advances in Psychology, vol. 128, pp. 359–382. North-Holland (1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sider, T.: Quantifiers and temporal ontology. Mind 115(457), 75–97 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Souza, E., Falbo, R.A., Vijaykumar, N.: ROoST: reference ontology on software testing. Appl. Ontol. 12(1), 59–90 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    U.S. Department of Defense (DoD): Data Modeling Guide (DMG) for an Enterprise Logical Data Model (ELDM). U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Report (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • João Paulo A. Almeida
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ricardo A. Falbo
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Guizzardi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Ontology and Conceptual Modeling Research Group (NEMO)Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES)VitóriaBrazil
  2. 2.Conceptual and Cognitive Modeling Research Group (CORE)Free University of Bozen-BolzanoBolzanoItaly

Personalised recommendations