• Maria Ravlik


This chapter discusses plausible explanations of what creates national environments that are more or less hostile to governments’ anti-trafficking efforts. The chapter also sums up how using cross-national, longitudinal, and multilevel methodologies, a reader, can get a more convincing answer to why governments’ efforts differ concerning anti-trafficking measures.


Theoretically-justified data sources of anti-trafficking enforcement Gender-specific policies Policies regulating violence in the household 


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  2. Brysk, A. (2009). Beyond framing and shaming: Human trafficking, human security and human rights. Journal of Human Security, 5(3), 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ekberg, G. (2004). The Swedish law that prohibits the purchase of sexual services: Best practices for prevention of prostitution and trafficking in human beings. Violence Against Women, 10(10), 1187–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Ravlik
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for the Study of DemocracyLeuphana UniversityLüneburgGermany

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