Propagation, Manipulation, Releasing and Evaluation of Aphid Parasitoids in Egypt

  • Ahmed Amin Ahmed SalehEmail author


Studies were carried out in the Arab Republic of Egypt to study certain aphid species infestation, their associated parasitoids on Cabbage, Cauliflower, faba bean, oleander plant (Dafla), cucumber, corn and cowpea plants. Survey and seasonal abundance of the aphid species Brevicoryne brassicae L., Aphis craccivora (Koch), Aphis nerii Fonsecolombe., Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy), Aphis gossypii Glover, Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch Rhopalosiphum padi L. and Hypermoyzus lactucae L. and its parasitoids were studied. Obtained results of the study showed that Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) was the dominant parasitoid on aphid species. Longevity was affected by temperature and food but the sex ratio was not affect by host species. The behavior of this parasitoid at varying host densities was also studied. Result showed a decrease of host-searching and first sting times with increasing host density but number of sting and number of mummies increased as host density increases. The obtained results evaluated the role of the parasitoid D. rapae in controlling B. brassicae and A. craccivora under greenhouses and field conditions. Results emphasized that the efficiency of this aphid parasitoid had been decreased with the highly population density of aphids. It may be concluded that when this aphid parasitoid used as biological control agents against B. brassicae and A. craccivora should be used with low host density.


Aphid Parasitoids Biology Mass production Release Egypt 


  1. 1.
    Stary P (1976) Aphid parasite (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) of the Mediterranean area. Trans Czechoslovak Acad Sci Ser Math Nat Sci 86:1–95Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jonsson M, Wratten SD, Landis DA, Gurr GM (2008) Recent advances in conservation biological control of arthropods by arthropods. Biol Control 45:172–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Walker GP, Nault LR, Simonet DE (1984) Natural mortality factors acting on potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) populations in processing tomato field in Ohio. Environ Entomol 13:724–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hagen KS, Van den Bosch R (1986) Impact of pathogens parasites and predators on aphids. Annu Rev Entomol 13:325–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hagvar EB, Hofsvang T (1991) Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) biology, host selection and use in biological control. Biocontrol News Inform 12:13–41Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Doutt RL, Smith CF (1971) The pesticide syndrome-diagnosis and suggested prophylaxis. Biol Control 8:3–15 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ibrahim AMA (1987) Studies on Aphidophagous parasitoids with special reference to Aphidius uzbekistanicus (Luz). PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 202 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sarhan AA (1976) Studies on the biological control of cotton white fly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) in Egypt. MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 164 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saleh AAA (2008) Storage of Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) (Hym., Aphidiidae) mummies in three aphid species; Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Aphis nerii Boyer De Fonscolombe and Aphis gossypii (Glov.). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 18:39–42Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saleh AAA (2012) Evaluation of release of Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) for controlling the cruciferous aphid Brevicoryne brassicae L. on cauliflower plants at Sharkia governorate. Egypt J Plant Prot Path Mansoura Univ 3:307–318Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elliott NC, French BW, Reed DK, Burd JD, Kindler SDM (1994) Host species effects on parasitization by a Syrian population of Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh). (Hymenoptera: Aphididiidae). Can Entomol 126:1515–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hafez M (1965) Characteristics of the open empty mummies of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. indicating the identify of emerged parasites. Agric Res Rev 43:85–88Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pike KS, Stary P, Miller T, Allison D, Graf G, Boydston L, Miller R, Gillespie R (1999) Host range and habitats of the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphididae) in Washington State. Environ Entomol 28:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saleh AAA (2000) Ecological and biological studies on certain aphid parasites at Mansoura district. MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, 85 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saleh AAA (2004) Mass production and field application of some aphid natural enemies. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, 161 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    El-Heneidy A, Gonzalez D, Abdel-Awal M, Adly D (2006) Performance of certain exotic aphid parasitoid species towards cereal aphids under laboratory, field cage and open wheat field conditions in Egypt. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 16:67–72Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saleh AAA, Hashem MS, Abd-Elsamed AA (2006) Aphidius colemani Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) as parasitoids on the common reed aphid, Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy) in Egypt. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 16:93–97Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saleh AAA, Gatwary WGT (2007) Seasonal abundance of the oleander aphid Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to the primary and hyper parasitoid on Dafla in Egypt. J Product Dev 12:709–730Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saleh AAA, Desuky WMH, Mohamed NE (2009) Studies on some parasitoids of the cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Egypt. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 19:11–16Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vinson SB, Iwantsch BGF (1980) Host suitability for insect parasitoids. Ann Rev Ent 25:397–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elliott NC, Burd JD, Kindlers D, Lee JH (1995) The temperature effects on development of three cereal aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) Great Lakes. Entomologist 28:199–204Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hosseini GA, Fathipour Y, Talebi AA (2003) A comparison of stable population parameters of cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae. Iran J Agric Sci 34:4, Pe785–Pe791Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abdel-Samad SSM (2002) Bioagents for controlling aphids in wheat fields to minimize pesticide pollution. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 129 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saleh AAA, Gatwary WGT, Mohamed NE (2009) Effect of temperature, relative humidity and some biological aspects on performance parasitoids of the oleander aphid Aphis nerii Boyer De Fonscolombe. J Agric Res 87:983–998Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abou-Fakhr EM, Kawar NS (1998) Complex of endoparasitoids of aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) on vegetables and other plants. Lebanon Entomol Obozrenie 77:753–763Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ragab ME, Abou El-Naga AM, Ghanim AA, Saleh AA (2002) Ecological studies on certain aphid parasitoids especially those of Aphis craccivora Koch. J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 27:2619–2620Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saleh AAA (2008) Ecological and biological studies of Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) the parasitoid of some aphid species in Egypt. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 18:33–38Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zaki FN, El-Shaarawy MF, Farag NA (1999) Release of two predators and two parasitoids to control aphids and white flies. Anz Schadlingsk 72:19–20Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maghraby HMM (2012) Studies on the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae on some aphid species in Sharkia governorate. MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Moshtohor, Benha University, 222 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Farrell JA, Stufkens MW (1990) The impact of Aphidius rophopalosiphi (Hymenoptera: Apidiidae) on population of the rose grain aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on cereals in canKrbury. NZ Bull Entomol Res 80:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Freuler J, Fischer S, Mittaz C, Terretaz C (2001) Role of banker plants to reinforce the action of Diaeretiella rapae, the main parasitoid of cabbage aphid. Revue Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 33:329–335Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ibrahim A, Fayad YH (1984) Rate of parasitism in certain species of aphids infesting some cultivated and uncultivated plants in Egypt. Ann Agric Sci Moshtohor 21:1079–1085Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    El-Maghraby MMA (1993) Seasonal abundance of the cruciferous aphid Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to the primary and hyper parasitoids on cauliflower in Zagazig region Egypt. Zagazig J Agric Res 20:1627–1639Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Okasha YAH (1998) Studies on certain parasitoids attacking the cabbage aphid. MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture Menoufiya University, 111 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abdel-Megid JE (1999) The cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and it’s associated parasitoids on cauliflower plantations at Zagazig district. J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 24:7741–7752Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bahana J, Karuhize G (1986) The role of Diaeretiella rapae (M’lntosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the population control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Kenya. Insect Sci Appl 7:605–609Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thakur JN, Rawat US, Pawar AD, Sidhu S (1989) Natural enemy complex of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. in Kull Valley, Himachal Pradesh. J Biol Control 3:69Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Abdel-Samad SSM (1996) Studies on natural enemies of certain insects attacking leguminous crop. MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 94 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stary P (1970) Biology of aphid parasites (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) with respect to integrated control. Entomologica 6, 643 ppGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vidal S (1997) Factors influencing the population dynamics of Brevicoryne brassicae in under sown Brussels sprouts. Biol Agric Hort 5:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ibrahim AMA, Afifi AI (1994) Aphidius colemani Viereck and Aphidius picipes (Nees) as a parasitoid on the mealy plum aphid, Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy) on peach in Egypt. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 1:45–56Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Megahed HEA (2000) Studies on aphids. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, 206 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kavallieratos NG, Lykoressis SGP, Stathas SA, Athanassiou CG (2001) The aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Icheumonoidea: Braconidae) of Greece. Phytoparasitica 29:306–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Steenis MJV (1995) Evaluation of four aphidiine parasitoids for biological control of A. gossypii. Entomol Exp Appl 75:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Albert R (1995) Biological control of the cotton aphid on cucumbers. Gartenbau Mag 4:32–34Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ohta I (2003) Parasitism of Lysiphlebus japonicus Ashmead on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Proc Kansai Plant Prot Soc 45:33–35Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Selim AA, El-Refai SA, El-Gantiry A (1987) Seasonal fluctuations in the population of Aphis craccivora Koch., Myzus persicae (Sulz.) Aphis gossypii (Glov.) and their parasites. Ann Agric Sci Ain Shams Univ 32:1837–1848Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ragab ME (1996) Biology and efficiency of Trioxys angelicae Hal. (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of Aphis craccivora Koch. (Homoptera: Aphidiidae). Egypt J Biol Control 6:7–11Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kant R, Minor MA, Trewick SA (2012) Reproductive strategies of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae) during fluctuating temperatures of spring season in New Zealand. Biocontrol Sci Technol 22:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nematollahi MR, Fathipour Y, Talebi AA, Karimzadeh J, Zalucki MP (2014) Parasitoid- and hyperparasitoid-mediated seasonal dynamics of the cabbage aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environ Entomol 43:1542–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Herakly FA, Abou El-Ezz A (1970) Seasonal abundance and natural enemies of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. Agric Res Rev 48:119–122Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Horn DJ (1989) Secondary parasitism and population dynamics of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). J Kansas Entomol Soc 62:203–210Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mackauer M, Volki W (1993) Regulation of aphid populations be aphidiid wasps: does parasitoid foraging behaviour or hyper parasitism limit impact? Oecologia 94:339–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vaz LAL, Tavares MT, Lomônaco C (2004) Diversity and size of parasitic Hymenoptera of Brevicoryne brassicae L. and Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Neotrop Entomol 33:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    May RM (1973) Stability and complicity in model ecosystems. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, p 235Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Saleh AAA, Khedr MMA (2014) Performance of the aphid parasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) towards certain aphid species in Egypt. J Entomol 11:127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liu SS, Xu ZH, Li ZJ (1990) Preliminary investigation of the parasites of aphids on cruciferous vegetables in Hangzhou. Chin J Biol Control 6:5–8Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Saleh AAA, El-Sharkaw HM, El-Santel FS, Abd-El-Salam RA (2017) Studies on some parasitoids of aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, (Homoptera: Aphididae) on cucumber plants in Egypt. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 10:19–30Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Carnevale AB, Bueno VHP, Sampaio MV (2003) Parasitism and development of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hermiptera: Aphididae). Neotrop Entomol 32:293–297Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Saleh AAA, Desuky WMH, Hashem HHA, Gatwary WGT (2009) Evaluation the role of aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Sharkia district. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 19:151–155Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rodrigues SMM, Bueno VHP, De Bueno JS, Filho S (2001) Development and evaluation of an open rearing system for the control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae) by Lysiphlebus testaceipes in greenhouses. Neotrop Entomol 30:433–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    AI-Hag E, Al-Rokaibah AA, Zaitoon AA (1996) Natural enemies of cereal aphids in sprinkler—irrigated wheat in central Saudi Arabia. Bull Fac Agric Cairo Univ 47:649–663Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Giustina W, Deriu P, Foessel P (1982) Role of specific natural enemies in the control of maize aphid populations in the Paris area preliminary results. Bull Srop 10:12–22Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bueno VHP, Souza MD (1992) Ethnology and life span of Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh). (Hymenoptera: Aphididiidae). Rev Agric (Piracicaba) 87:49–54Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    El-Batran LA, Awadallah SS, Fathy HM (1996) On some predators and parasitoids of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) in Mansoura district. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 6:35–38Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Heimpel GE, Jervis MA (2005) Does floral nectar improve biological control by parasitoids? In: Wäckers FL, van Rijn PCJ, Bruin J (eds) Plant-provided food for carnivorous insects: a protective mutualism and its applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 267–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lee JC, Heimpel GE (2002) Nectar availability and parasitoid sugar feeding. In: van Driesche RG (ed) 1st international symposium on biological control of arthropods. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Morgantown, West Virginia, pp 220–225Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tena A, Pekas A, Wäckers FL, Urbaneja A (2013) Energy reserves of parasitoids depend on honeydew from non-hosts. Ecol Entomol 38:278–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Yann-Davi V (2015) Floral resource subsidies for the enhancement of the biological control of aphids in oilseed rape crops. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Lincoln University, 123 ppGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Araj SE, Wratten S, Lister A, Buckley HL, Ghabeish I (2011) Searching behavior of an aphid parasitoid and its hyperparasitoid with and without floral nectar. Biol Control 57:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Saleh AAA, Salem HEM, Gatwary WGT (2009) The role of primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids associated with oleander aphid Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Homoptera: Aphididae). Bull Soc Entomol Egypt 86:115–129Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kean J, Wratten S, Tylianakis J, Barlow N (2003) The population consequences of natural enemy enhancement, and implications for conservation biological control. Ecol Lett 6:604–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jervis MA, Ellers J, Harvey JA (2008) Resource acquisition, allocation, and utilization in parasitoid reproductive strategies. Annu Rev Entomol 53:361–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jamont M, Crépellière S, Jaloux B (2013) Effect of extrafloral nectar provisioning on the performance of the adult parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae. Biol Control 65:271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ayal Y (1987) The foraging strategy of Diaeretiella rapae. J Anim Ecol 56:1057–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hopkinson JE, Zalucki MP, Murray DAH (2013) Honeydew as a source of nutrition for Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): effect of adult diet on lifespan and egg load. Aust J Entomol 52:14–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Volkl GP, Stechmann DH (1998) Parasitism of the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) by Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hermiptera: Aphidiidae): the influence of host plant and habitat. J Appl Entomol 122:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Murphy ST, Volkl W (1996) Population dynamics and foraging behaviour of Diaeretus leucopterus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and its potential for the biological control of pine damaging Eulachnus spp. (Aphididae). Bull Entomol Res 86:397–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kolaib MO (1991) Effect of temperature on Pachyneuron aphidis Bouche, a hyperparasitoid of Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh). Alex Sci Exch 12:30–42Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wilson GB, Lambdin PL (1987) Suitability of Brevicoryne brassicae L and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) as hosts of Diaeretiella rapae. Entomol News 98:140–146Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sandra EH, Scott JC, Mark DH (2004) Effects of variation among plant species on the interaction between a herbivore and its parasitoid. Ecol Entomol 29:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Araj S, Wratten SD (2015) Comparing existing weeds and commonly used insectary plants as floral resources for a parasitoid. Biol Control 81:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tylianakis JM, Didham RK, Wratten SD (2004) Improved fitness of aphid parasitoids receiving resource subsidies. Ecology 85:658–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Saleh AAA, Ali SAM, Abd-Elsamed AA, Elsayed AAA (2014) Development of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) reared on certain aphid species in relation to heat unit requirement. J Entomol 11:319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kant R, Minor M, Sandanayaka M, Trewick S (2013) Effects of mating and oviposition delay on parasitism rate and sex allocation behaviour of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Biol Control 65:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Srivastava M, Singh R (1988) Bionomics of Trioxys indicus, an aphidiid parasitoid of Aphis craccivora. Impact of host-extract on the oviposition response of the parasitoid. Biol Agric Hort 5:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Debach P (1964) Biological control of insect pest and weeds, 844 ppGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Archer TL, Murray CL, Eikenbary RD, Starks KJ, Morrison RD (1973) Cold storage of Lysiphlebus testaceipes mummies. Environ Entomol 2:1104–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hofasvang T, Hagvar E (1977) Cold storage tolerance and super cooling points of mummies Ephedrus cerasicola Stary and Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Norw J Entomol 24:1–6Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shalaby FF, Rabasse JM (1979) Effect of conservation of the aphid parasite Aphidius matricariae Hal. (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on adult longevity, mortality and emergence. Ann Agric Sci Moshtohor 11:59–73Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Scopes NEA, Biggerstaff SM, Goodall DE (1973) Cool storage of some parasites used for pest control in glasshouses. PL Path 22:189–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lyon JP (1968) Remarques preliminaries sur les possibilites d’utilisation pratique d’Hymenopteres parasites pour. Ann Epiphy 19:113–118Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gornall AG, Bardawilb CD, David MM (1949) Determination of serum protein by means of bruit reduction. J Biochem 177:751–766Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Knight JA, Anderson S, Rawla JM (1972) Chemical basis of the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction for estimating total serum lipids. Clin Chem 18:199–202Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lee YP, Takahash T (1966) An improved colorimetric determination of amino acids with use of ninhydrin. Anal Biochem 14:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    DuBois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Vanson SB, Iwantsch GF (1980) Host suitability for insect parasitoids. Annu Rev Entomol 25:397–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Crompton M, Birt LM (1967) Changes in the amounts of carbohydrates, phosphagen and related compounds during the metamorphosis of the blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. J Insect Physiol 13:1575–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sequeira R, Mackauer M (1993) The nutritional ecology of a parasitoid wasp Ephedrus californicus Baker (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Can Entomol 125:423–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Carver M, Sulivan DJ (1988) Encapsulative defense reactions of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to insect parasitoids and aphelinidae (minireview). In: Niemczyk E, Dixon AFG (eds) Ecology and effectiveness of aphidophaga: proceedings of an international symposium. SPB Academic Publishing, Hague, pp 299–303Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kant R, Sandanayaka WRM, He XZ, Wang Q (2008) Effect of the host age on searching and oviposition behaviour of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). NZ Plant Prot 61:355–361Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Downer RC (1978) Functional role of lipid in insects. In: Rockstein M (ed) Biochemistry of insects. Academic Press, London, pp 58–93Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Van Alphen JJM, Bernstein C, Driessen G (2003) Information acquisition and time allocation in insect parasitoids. Trends Ecol Evol 18:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pierre JS (2011) Neuroeconomics in parasitoids: computing accurately with a minute brain. Oikos 120:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sinha TB, Singh R (1979) Studies on the bionomics of Trioxys indicus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae): effect of population densities on sex ratio. Entomophaga 24:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sinha TB, Singh R (1980) Studies on the bionomics of Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae): a parasitoid of Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphidiidae) the area of discovery of parasitoid. Zeit Angew Entomol 89:173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Acheampong S, Stark JD (2004) Can reduced rates of pymetrozine and natural enemies control the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae), on broccoli? Int J Pest Manag 50:275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fathipour Y, Gharalari AH, Talebin AA (2004) Some behavioral characteristics of Diaeretiella rapae (Hym. Aphidiidae), parasitoid of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hom. Aphididae). Iran J Agric Sci 35:393–401Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    El-Naggar EM, Abou El-Naga AM, Ghanim AA, Saleh AAA (2008) Mass production and field application of some aphid natural enemies. Egypt J Agric Res 86:623–624Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    White TCR (2013) Experimental and observational evidence reveals that predators in natural environments do not regulate their prey: they are passengers, not drivers. Acta Oecol 53:73–87Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nematollahi MR, Fathipour Y, Talebi AA, Karimzadeh J, Zalucki MP (2014) Parasitoid and hyperparasitoid-mediated seasonal dynamics of the cabbage aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environ Entomol 43:1542–1551Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Saleh AAA (2013) Efficacy of the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) to control Brevicoryne brassicae L., Aphis craccivora (Koch) and Aphis nerii Boyer at Sharkia governorate, Egypt. J Agric Res 92:21–31Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ralec A, Ribulé A, Barragan A, Outreman Y (2011) Host range limitation caused by incomplete host regulation in an Aphid parasitoid. J Insect Physiol 57:363–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Abdul Rehman A, Powell W (2010) Host selection behavior of aphid parasitoids (Aphidiidae: Hymenoptera). J Plant Breed Crop Sci 2:299–311Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ragab ME, Ghanim AA (1997) Effect of different parasite/host ratio between Trioxys angelicae Hal, (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and its host Aphis craccivora Koch. (Homoptera: Aphdidae) on the percentages of parasitism and population development. J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 27:2619–2620Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Saleh AAA (2012) Efficacy of the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) to control Brevicoryne brassicae L., Aphis craccivora (Koch) and Aphis nerii Boyer at Sharkia governorate, Egypt. J Agric Res 91:21–31Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zahra T, Talebi AA, Rakhshani E (2011) The foraging behavior Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Diuraphis noxia (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Arch Biol Sci Belgrade 63:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chau A, Mackauer M (2001) Preference of the aphid parasitoid Monoctonus paulensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) for different aphid species: female choice and offspring survival. Biol Control 20:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gently GL, Barbosa P (2006) Effects of leaf epicuticular wax on the movement, foraging behavior, and attack efficacy of Diaeretiella rapae. Entomol Exp Appl 21:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Brown WL, Eisner TE, Whittaker RH (1970) Allomones and kairomones: transspecific chemical messengers. Bioscience 20:21–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Zhang WQ, Hassan SA (2003) Use of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (McIntoch) to control the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. J Appl Entomol 127:522–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research CenterDokki, GizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations