Advertisement

Biochemical Indicators and Biofertilizer Application for Diagnosis and Allevation Micronutrient Deficiency in Plant

  • Zeinab A. Salama
  • Magdi T. AbdelhamidEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Deficiencies in micronutrients are well established causal factors for sub-optimal plant production. Therefore, the first option is to apply micronutrient-containing fertilizers, both chemical and organic, and application method should be based on soil nutrient management guidelines along with crop types. It is often misleading to identify nutrient constraints based on morphological symptoms or in combination with leaf/soil analysis, particularly with regard to remedying the nutritional problems of a standing crop. The objective of this chapter is to identify and diagnose common symptoms of plant nutrient deficiency and to understand how to use chemical indicators and bio fertilizer to identify and alleviate deficiencies of micronutrients. The possibilities of using biochemical markers and application of biofertilizers to diagnose and mitigate deficiencies in micronutrients are presented. Foliar analysis is a useful tool for detecting deficiencies of micronutrients before macroscopic symptoms occur in plants. This work will therefore focus on the other diagnostic tools used to evaluate micronutrient deficiencies that include soil analysis, plant-growth response (in annual plants), and visual symptom observation. More biochemical indicators recently have been used as early detectors of deficiencies in micronutrients i.e. for iron (Fe), include peroxidase and catalase, and zinc (Zn) include carbonic anhydrase, superoxide dismutase, protein electrophoresis, and isozymes. The roles of the necessary micronutrients for normal plant growth need to have a deep knowledge of the redox system mechanisms. The biochemical markers for the deficiency of micronutrients in diagnosis and the role and benefits of application of bio fertilizers are presented in detail and discussed in this chapter in full. One more aim of this chapter is to summarize the updating knowledge of biochemical markers and the role of biofertilizers that would play a key role in soil productivity and sustainability as well as protecting the environment as environmentally friendly and cost-effective inputs for farmers.

Keywords

Micronutrient deficiency Biochemical markers Bio fertilizer Crop productivity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors Dr. Zeinab Salama and Dr. Magdi Abdelhamid, would like to express their gratitude to Dr. Mohamed M. El-Fouly, Professor of Plant Nutrition, National Research Centre, Egypt, and their colleagues at Department of Plant Biochemistry, and Department of Botany, National Research Centre, Egypt for their valuable contribution in some phases of this study.

References

  1. 1.
    O’Neil MA, Ishiim T, Albersheimm P, Darvill AG (2004) Rhamnogalacturonan II: structure and function of a borate cross-linked cell wall pectic polysaccharide. Ann Rev Plant Biol 55:109–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Patterson J, Ford K, Cassin A, Natera S, Bacic A (2007) Increased abundance of protein involved in phytosiderophore production in boron-tolerant barley. Plant Physiol 144:1612–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rieuwerts JS, Thornton I, Farago ME, Ashmore MR (1998) Factors influencing metal bioavailability in soils: preliminary investigations for the development of a critical loads approach for metals. Chem Spec Bioavailab 10:61–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tsui MT, Wang WX, Chu LM (2005) Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (roundup) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environ Pollut 138:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eker S, Ozturk L, Yazici A, Erenoglu B, Romheld V, Cakmak I (2006) Foliar-applied glyphosate substantially reduced uptake and transport of iron and manganese in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. J Agric Food Chem 54:10019–10025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Steffens D, Hutsch BW, Eschholz T, Lošak T, Schubert S (2005) Waterlogging may inhibit plant growth primarily by nutrient deficiency rather than nutrient toxicity. Plant Soil Environ 51:545–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waraich EA, Ahmad R, Ashraf MY (2011) Role of mineral nutrition in alleviation of drought stress in plants. Aust J Crop Sci 5:764–777Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown PH, Bellaloui N, Wimmer MA, Bassil ES, Ruiz J, Hu H, Pfeffer H, Dannel F, Romheld V (2002) Boron in plant biology. Plant Biol 4:203–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kobayashi T, Nishizawa NK (2012) Iron uptake, translocation, and regulation in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 63:131–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yan X, Wu P, Ling H, Xu G, Xu F, Zhang Q (2006) Plant nutrigenomics in China: an overview. Ann Bot 98:473–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahsan N, Lee DG, Lee SH, Kang KY, Lee JJ, Kim PJ, Yoon HS, Kim PJ, Lee BH (2007) Excess copper-induced physiological and proteomic changes in germinating rice seeds. Chemosphere 67:1182–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    El-Fouly MM, El-Baz FK, Youssef AM, Salama ZA (1998) Carbonic anhydrase, aldolase, and catalase activities as affected by spraying different concentrations and forms of zinc and iron on faba bean and wheat. Egypt J Sci 22:1–11Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yin Y, Impellitteri CA, You SJ, Allen HE (2002) The importance of organic matter distribution and extract soil: solution ratio on the desorption of heavy metals from soils. Sci Total Environ 287:107–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bowen HJM (1979) Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lindsay WL (2001) Chemical equilibria in soils. The Blackburn Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Halvin JL, Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD (2014) Soil fertility and fertilizer: an introduction to nutrient management, 8th edn. Pearson Education, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Neumann G, Römheld V (2012) Rhizosphere chemistry in relation to plant nutrition. In: Marschner P (ed) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Academic Press, London, pp 347–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    El-Fouly MM (1987) Use of micronutrient under practical conditions in Egypt. In: El-Fouly et al (ed.) Proceedings of symposium “Application of special fertilizers” Alex, Egypt, 21–23.02.1986, pp 71–86Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grundon NJ (1987) Hungry crops: a guide to nutrient deficiencies in field crops. Queensland Government, Brisbane, Australia, p 246Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bergmann W (1986) Ernaehrungsstorungen bei Kulturpflanzen: Visuelle and analytische Dignose. VEB Gustar Fishers Verlage, Jena, Germany, p 306Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Follett RH, Westfall DG (1992) Identifying and correcting zinc and iron deficiency in field crops. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Service in action no 545Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wiese MV (1993) Wheat and other small grains. In: Nutrient deficiencies and toxicities in crop plants. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, p 202Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCauly A, Jones C, Jacobsen J (2009) Plant nutrient functions and deficiency and toxicity symptoms. In: Nutrient management module, no 9, p 16. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Solberg E, Evans I, Penny D (1999) Copper deficiency: diagnosis and correction. Government of Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. Agdex 532-3Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2001) Principles of plant nutrition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, p 849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jacobsen JS, Jasper CD (1991, Feb) Diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies in alfalfa and wheat. EB 43. Montana State University Extension, Bozeman, MontanaGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bienfait HF (1988) Mechanisms in Fe-efficiency reactions of a higher plant. J Plant Nutr 11:605–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Marschner H, Roemheld V (1996) Root-induced changes in the availability of micronutrients in the rhizosphere. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A (eds) Plant roots the hidden half. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 557–579Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    von Wiren N, Mori S, Marschner H, Roemheld V (1994) Iron-inefficiency in the maize mutant ys1 (Zea mays L. cv. Yellow-stripe) is caused by a defect in uptake of iron phytosiderophores. Plant Physiol 106:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Babalakova NK, Traykova D, Matsumoto H (1993) The reaction of H+ transporting activity membrane potential forming by tonoplast ATPase proton pump of barley roots after uptake of Cu2+. Biol Biochime 46:117–120Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wei L, Loeppert RH, Ocumpauch WR (1998) Analysis of iron-deficiency undocked hydrogen release by plant roots using chemical equilibrium and pH-stat methods. J Plant Nutr 21:1539–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Salama ZA, Laszova GN, Stoinova ZG, Popova LP (2002) Effect of zinc deficiency on photosynthesis in maize and chick-pea plants. CR Acad Bulg Sci 55:65–68Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brown JC, Jolley VD (1989) Plant metabolic responses to iron deficiency stress. BioSci 39:546–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brown JC, Ambler JE (1974) Iron stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). I. Sites of Fe reduction, absorption and transport. Physiol Plant 31:221–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vigani G, Donnini, S, Zocchi G (2015) Metabolic adjustment under Fe deficiency in roots of dicotyledonous plants. Chapter Nova, 1–24Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jolley VD, Fairbanks DJ, Stevens WB, Terry RE, Orf JH (1992) Root iron-reduction capacity for genotypic evaluation of iron efficiency in soybean. J Plant Nutr 15:1679–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Camp SD, Jolley VD, Brown JC (1987) Comparative evaluation of factors involved in Fe stress response in tomato and soybean. J Plant Nutr 4:423–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hagström J, James WM, Skene KR (2001) A comparison of structure, development and function in cluster roots of Lupinus albus under phosphate and iron stress. Plant Soil 232:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jin CW, Chen WW, Meng ZB, Zheng SJ (2008) Iron deficiency-induced increase of root branching contributes to the enhanced root ferric chelate reductase activity. J Integr Plant Biol 50:1557–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Noguchi A, Yoshihara T, Ichihara A, Sugihara S, Koshino M, Kojima M, Masaoka Y (1994) Ferric phosphate-dissolving compound, alfa furan, from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in response to iron deficiency-stress. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58:2312–2313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dell’Orto M, Santi S, De Nisi P, Cesco S, Varanini Z, Zocchi G, Pinton R (2000) Development of Fe-deficiency responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) roots: involvement of plasma membrane H+ -ATPase activity. J Exp Bot 51:695–701Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Koshino H, Masaoka Y, Ichihara A (1993) A benzofuran derivative released by Fe-deficient Medicago sativa. Phytochem 33:1075–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pestana M, David M, de Varennes A, Abadia J, Faria AE (2001) Responses of “Newhall” orange trees to Iron deficiency in hydroponic: effect of leaf chlorophyll photosynthetic efficiency, and root ferric chelate reductase activity. J Plant Nutr 24:1609–1620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Takagi S (1976) Naturally occurring iron-chelating compounds in oat-and rice-root washings 1. Activity measurements and preliminary characterization. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 22:423–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Erenouglu B, Eker S, Cakmak L, Derici R, Roemheld V (2000) Effect of iron and zinc deficiency of release of phytosiderophores in barley cultivars differing in zinc efficiency. J Plant Nutr 23:1645–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang F, Roemheld V, Marschner H (1989) Effect of zinc deficiency in wheat on the release of zinc and iron mobilizing exudates. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenk 152:205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cakmak I, Gulut K, Marschner H, Graham RD (1994) Effect of zinc and iron deficiency on phytosiderophore release in wheat genotypes differing in zinc efficiency. J Plant Nutr 17:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Treeby M, Marschner H, Romheld V (1989) Mobilization of iron and other micronutrient cations from a calcareous soil by plant-borne, microbial, and synthetic metal chelators. Plant Soil 114:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhang F, Romheld V, Marschner H (1991) The release of zinc mobilizing root exudates in different plant species as affected by zinc nutritional status. J Plant Nutr 14:675–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Takagi S, Nomoto K, Takemoto T (1984) Physiological aspect of mugineic acid, a possible phytosiderophore of graminaceous plants. J Plant Nutr 7:469–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marschner H, Römheld V, Kissel M (1986) Different strategies in higher plants in mobilization and uptake of iron. J Plant Nutr 9:695–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Marschner H (1986) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press Inc., London, p 674Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    El-Baz FK, Salama ZA, Mohamed AA (1996) Evaluation of catalase, carbonic (CA), Aldolase activities and chlorophyll as indicators for Fe and Zn deficiency in snap bean (Phosphorus Vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia Faba) plants. J Agric Sci Mans Univ 21:2569–2581Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    El-Bendary AA, Abou El-Nour EAA, El-Sayed AA (1999) Responses of maize hybrids to Fe-stress in calcareous soil. Alex J Agric Res 44:181–190Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shaaban MM, El-Sayed AA, Abou El-Nour EAA (1999) Predicting nitrogen magnesium and iron nutritional status in some crops a portable. Sci Hortic 82:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    El-Baz FK, El-Monde EA, Salama ZA, Mohamed AA (1998) Determination of Fe2+ and soluble zinc as biochemical indicators for the diagnosis of iron and zinc deficiency in snap bean Phaseolus Vulgaris and fava bean Vicia faba plants. Egypt J Physiol Sci 22:25–39Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nikolic M, Kastori R (2000) Effect of bicarbonate and Fe supply of Fe nutrition of grapevine. J Plant Nutr 23:1619–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Garcia AL, Galindo L, Sanchez-Blanco MJ, Torrecillas A (1990) Peroxidase assay using 3, 3′, 5, 5′ tetramethylbenzidine as H-donor for rapid diagnosis of the iron deficiency in citrus. Sci Hortic 92:251–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nenova V, Stoyanov I (1995) Physiological and biochemical changes in young maize plants under iron deficiency: 2, catalase, peroxidase, and nitrate reductase activities in leaves. J Plant Nutr 18:2081–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    El-Bendary AA, Mabrouk Y, El-Metainy A (1998) Peroxidase isozyme variants as genetic markers for early evaluation of Fe-efficiency and Fe-nutritional status in maize lines. Field Crops Res 59:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cakmak I, Marschner H (1993) Effect of zinc nutritional status on activities of superoxide-radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes in bean leaves. In: Barrow NJ (ed) Plant nutrition, from genetic engineering to field practice, pp 133–137Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Obata H, Umebayashi M (1988) Effect of zinc deficiency or protein synthesis in cultured tobacco plant cells. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 34:351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yu Q, Worth C, Rengel Z (1999) Using capillary electrophoresis to measure Cu/Zn-SOD concentration in leaves of wheat genotypes differing in tolerance to Zn deficiency. Plant Sci 143:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fernando C, Lidon C, Fernando SH (1993) Effects of copper toxicity on growth and uptake and translocation of metals in rice plants. J Plant Nutr 16:1449–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Salama ZA (2001) Diagnosis of copper deficiency through growth, nutrient uptake and some biochemical reactions in Pisum sativum L. Pakistan J Biolog Sci 4:1299–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cakmak I (2009) Enrichment of fertilizers with zinc: an excellent investment for humanity and crop production in India. J Trace Elem Med Biol 23:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Shivay YS, Kumar D, Prasad R (2008) Effect of zinc-enriched urea on productivity, zinc uptake and efficiency of an aromatic rice-wheat cropping system. Nutr Cycle Agroecosyst 81:229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dobermann A, Fairhurst T (2000) Rice: nutrient disorders and nutrient management. Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI), Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC), and International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Singapore and Los Baños, PhilipinesGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dimkpa CO, McLean JE, Britt DW, Anderson AJ (2012) Bioactivity and biomodification of Ag, ZnO and CuO nanoparticles with relevance to plant performance in agriculture. Ind Biotechnol 8:344–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Schulin R, Chaney RL, Daneshbakhsh B, Afyuni M (2010) Micronutrient-efficient genotypes for crop yield and nutritional quality in sustainable agriculture. Agron Sustain Dev 30:83–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gao M, Che FC, Wei CF, Xie DT, Yang JH (2000) Effect of long-term application of manures on forms of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in purple paddy soil. Plant Nutr Fertil Sci 6:11–17Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    IRRI (2012) Using organic materials and manures. Available from www.knowledgebank.irri.org/training/factsheets/nutrient-management/item/using-organic-materials-and-manures. Accessed on 9 Aug 2017
  73. 73.
    He W, Shohag MJ, Wei Y, Feng Y, Yang X (2013) Iron concentration, bioavailability, and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer. Food Chem 141:4122–4126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fageria NK, Barbosa FMP, Moreira A, Guimaraes CM (2009) Foliar fertilization of crop plants. J Plant Nutr 32:1044–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Reda F, Abdelhamid MT, El-Lethy SR (2014) The role of Zn and B for improving Vicia faba L. tolerance to salinity stress. Middle East J Agric Res 3:707–714Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hellal FA, El Sayed SAA, Zewainy RM, Abdelhamid M (2015) Interactive effects of calcium and boron application on nutrient content, growth and yield of faba bean irrigated by saline water. Int J Plant Soil Sci 4:288–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mohamed HI, Elsherbiny EA, Abdelhamid MT (2016) The changes induced on physiological and biochemical responses of Vicia faba plants to foliar application with zinc and iron. Gesunde Pflanzen 68:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Biochemistry DepartmentNational Research CentreDokki, GizaEgypt
  2. 2.Botany DepartmentNational Research CentreDokki, GizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations