Plant Viral Diseases in Egypt and Their Control

  • Ahmed AbdelkhalekEmail author
  • Elsayed Hafez


Plant viruses pose a serious threat to agricultural production and incur enormous costs to growers each year, both directly, in the form of yield and quality loss, and indirectly, in the forms of time and funds spent on scouting and disease management. Virus diseases cause plants crops losses annually in average of US$ 60 billion. Accordingly, viral diseases need to be controlled for the sustainable agriculture and in order to maintain the quality and abundance of food production. Moreover, recently agriculture suffered from different problems such as; the contentious changes in climatic factors globally, increasing the numbers of pathogens per year and appearance of anew pests. Unfortunately, chemical control has negative impact on the environment and on human health as well in addition it creates an imbalance in the microbial biodiversity, which may be unfavorable to the activity of the beneficial organisms and may lead to the development of pathogens-resistant strains. The most important thing is that agricultural sustainability should be supported by eco-friendly approaches such as discovery of new biocontrol agents capable to control the plant viral diseases. To achieve this was inevitable to use the plant growth-promoting microbes as effective biocontrol agents against plant viruses will hold the greatest promise and is considered a pillar of integrated viral diseases management. We argue that the use of growth-promoting microbes will preserve sustainable agriculture as well as a clean environment free from pollution, which will be benefiting for both the farmer and the consumer. So far, there are no such pesticides at the local level, while at the international level there may be one or two products. We succeeded to control some viruses infect potato by using the filtrates of seven Bacillus spp. mixed with nanoclay, but the product is still under research and development.


Plant viruses Virus control PGPR PGPF Egypt 


  1. 1.
    Fenner F, Maurin J (1976) The classification and nomenclature of viruses. Arch Virol 51:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bryant JL (2008) Animal models in virology. In: Sourcebook of models for biomedical research. Springer, pp 557–563Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Willey J (2008) Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology-7th international. In: Willey JW, Sherwood LM, Woolverton CJ (eds). McGraw-Hill Higher Education, New York [etc.]Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Strange RN, Scott PR (2005) Plant disease: a threat to global food security. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:83–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gergerich RC, Dolja VV (2006) Introduction to plant viruses, the invisible foe. Plant Health Instruct. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hull R (2014) Plant virology, 5th edn. Elsevier, London, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bisnieks M, Kvarnheden A, Turka I, Sigvald R (2006) Occurrence of barley yellow dwarf virus and cereal yellow dwarf virus in pasture grasses and spring cereals in Latvia. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 56:171–178Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hafez E, El-Morsi A, El-Shahaby O, Abdelkhalek A (2014) Occurrence of iris yellow spot virus from onion crops in Egypt. Virus Disease 25:455–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abdelkhalek A, Sanan-Mishra N (2019) Differential expression profiles of tomato miRNAs induced by Tobacco Mosaic Virus. J Agr Sci Tech 21:475–485Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lewsey M, Palukaitis P, Carr JP (2009) Plant—virus interactions: defence and counter-defence. In: Parker J (ed) Molecular aspects of plant disease resistance. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 134–176Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abdelkhalek A, Eldessoky D, Hafez E (2018) Polyphenolic genes expression pattern and their role in viral resistance in tomato plant infected with Tobacco mosaic virus. Biosci Res 15:3349–3356Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abdelkhalek A, ElMorsi A, AlShehaby O, Sanan-Mishra N, Hafez E (2018) Identification of genes differentially expressed in Iris Yellow Spot Virus infected onion. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 57:334–340Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arias-Estévez M, Lopez-Periago E, Martinez-Carballo E, Simal-Gandara J, Mejuto JC, Garcia-Rio L (2008) The mobility and degradation of pesticides in soils and the pollution of ground water resources. Agric Ecosyst Environ 123:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nayak SK, Dash B, Baliyarsingh B (2018) Microbial remediation of persistent agro-chemicals by soil bacteria: an overview. In: Patra J, Das G, Shin HS (eds) Microbial Biotechnol. Springer, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abdel-Gayed M, Abo-Zaid G, Matar S, Hafez E (2019) Fermentation, formulation and evaluation of PGPR Bacillus subtilis isolate as a bioagent for reducing occurrence of peanut soil-borne diseases. J Integr Agric. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Murphy JF, Reddy MS, Ryu CM, Kloepper JW, Li R (2003) Rhizobacteria mediated growth promotion of tomato leads to protection against cucumber mosaic virus. Phytopathology 93:1301–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gray EJ, Smith DL (2005) Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: commensalities and distinctions in the plant-bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biol Biochem 37:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kandan A, Ramaiah M, Vasanthi VJ, Radjacommare R, Nandakumar R, Ramanathan A, Samiyappan R (2005) Use of Pseudomonas fluorescens based formulations for management of tomato spot wilt virus (TSWV) and enhanced yield in tomato. Biocontrol Sci Tech 15:553–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jetiyanon K, Fowler WD, Kloepper JW (2003) Broad spectrum protection against several pathogens by PGPR mixtures under field conditions. Plant Dis 87:1390–1394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hass D, Defago G (2005) Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads. Nat Rev Microbiol 3:307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matar S, El-Kazzaz S, Wagih E, El-Diwany A, Moustafa H, Abo-Zaid G, Abd-Elsalam HE, Hafez E (2009) Antagonistic and inhibitory effect of Bacillus subtilis against certain plant pathogenic fungi. Biotechnology 8:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beneduzi A, Ambrosini A, Passaglia LMP (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents. Genet Mol Biol 35:1044–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zehnder GW, Yao C, Murphy JF, Sikora ER, Kloepper JW (2000) Induction of resistance in tomato against Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Biocontrol 45:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lee GH, Ryu CM (2016) Spraying of leaf-colonizing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens protects pepper from Cucumber mosaic virus. Plant Dis 100:2099–2105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ryu CM, Murphy JF, Mysore KS, Kloepper JW (2004) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria systemically protect Arabidopsis thaliana against Cucumber mosaic virus by a salicylic acid and NPR1-independent and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathway. Plant J 39:381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Park KS, Paul D, Ryu KR, Kim EY, Kim YK (2006) Bacillus vallismortis strain EXTN-1 mediated systemic resistance against Potato Virus X and Y (PVX & PVY) in the field. Plant Pathol J 22:360–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Murphy JF, Zehnder GW, Schuster DJ, Sikora EJ, Polstan JE, Kloepper JW (2000) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial mediated protection in tomato against Tomato mottle virus. Plant Dis 84:779–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harish S, Kavino M, Kumar N, Balasubramanian P, Samiyappan R (2009) Induction of defense-related proteins by mixtures of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria against Banana bunchy top virus. Biol Control 51:16–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Raupach GS, Liu L, Murphy JF, Tuzun S, Kloepper JW (1996) Induced systemic resistance in cucumber and tomato against Cucumber mosaic cucmovirus using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Plant Dis 80:891–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim YS, Hwang EI, Jeong-Hun O, Kim KS, Ryu MH, Yeo WH (2004) Inhibitory effects of Acinetobacter sp. KTB3 on infection of Tobacco mosaic virus in tobacco plants. Plant Pathol J 20:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Beris D, Theologidis I, Skandalis N, Vassilakos N (2018) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain MBI600 induces salicylic acid dependent resistance in tomato plants against Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus Y. Scientific Reports 8:10320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kloepper JW, Ryu CM, Zhang S (2004) Induced systemic resistance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94(11):1259–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhong Y, Peng J-j, Chen Z-z, Xie H, Luo D, Dai J-r, Yan F, Wang J-g, Dong H-z, Chen S-y (2015) Dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum activates defense responses and restricts the spread of Tobacco Mosaic Virus in tobacco. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 92:28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cerqueira-Silva CB, Moreira CN, Figueira AR, Corrêa RX, Oliveira AC (2008) Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of ‘yellow’ passion fruit plants under field conditions. Genet Mol Res 7:1209–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lecoq H, Moury B, Desbiez C, Palloix A, Pitrat M (2004) Durable viral resistance in plants through conventional approaches: a challenge. Virus Res 100:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prins M, Laimer M, Noris E, Schubert J, Wassenegger M, Tepfer M (2008) Strategies for antiviral resistance in transgenic plants. Mol Plant Pathol 9:73–83Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tepfer M (2002) Risk assessment of virus-resistant transgenic plants. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:467–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Giovannetti M, Sbrana C, Turrini A (2005) The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities. Riv Biol 98:393–417Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ho MW, Ryan A, Cummins J (1999) Cauliflower mosaic viral promoter- a recipe for disaster. Microb Ecol Health Dis 11:194–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saxena D, Flores S, Stotzky G (1999) Insecticidal toxin in root exudates from Bt corn. Nature 402:480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zwahlen C, Hilbeck A, Gugerli P, Nentwig W (2003) Degradation of the Cry1Ab protein within transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn tissue in the field. Mol Ecol 12:765–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mercer KL, Wainwright JD (2008) Gene flow from transgenic maize to landraces in Mexico: an analysis. Agri Ecosyst Environ 123:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Prakash D, Verma S, Bhatia R, Tiwary BN (2011) Risks and precautions of genetically modified organisms. ISRN Ecol 369573:13. Scholar
  44. 44.
    Eicher CK, Maredia K, Sithole-Niang I (2006) Crop biotechnology and the African farmer. Food Policy 31(6):504–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Franks A, Ryan RP, Abbas A, Mark GL, O’Gara F (2006) Molecular tools for studying plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In: Cooper JE, Rao JR (eds) Molecular approaches to soil rhizosphere and plant microorganisms analysis. Biddes Ltd Kings, Lynn, pp 116–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Glick BR (2014) Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world. Microbiol Res 169:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hilje L, Costa HS, Stansly PA (2001) Cultural practices for managing Bemisia tabaci and associated viral diseases. Crop Prot 20:801–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Palumbo JC, Horowitz AR, Prabhaker N (2001) Insecticidal control and resistance management for Bemisia tabaci. Crop Prot 20:739–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Satapathy MK (1998) Chemical control of insect and nematode vectors of plant viruses. In: Hadidi A, Khetarpal RK, Koganezawa H (eds) Plant virus disease control. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA. pp 188–195Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fereres A (2000) Barrier crops as a cultural control measure of non-persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses. Virus Res 71:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Prasad RD, Rangeshwaran R (2000) Effect of soil application of a granular formulation of Trichoderma harzianum on Rhizoctonia solani incited seed rot and damping-off of chickpea. J Mycol Plant Pathol 30:216–220Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Srinivasan K, Mathivanan N (2009) Biological control of sunflower necrosis virus disease with powder and liquid formulations of plant growth promoting microbial consortia under field conditions. Biol Control 51:395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    De Meyer G, Audenaert K, Höfte M (1999) Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2-induced systemic resistance in tobacco depends on in planta salicylic acid accumulation but is not associated with PR1a expression. Eur J Plant Pathol 105:513–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Park JY, Yang SY, Kim YC, Kim JC, Le Dang Q, Kim JJ, Kim IS (2012) Antiviral peptide from Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). J Korean Soc Appl Biol 55:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Han Y, Luo Y, Qin S, Xi L, Wan B, Du L (2014) Induction of systemic resistance against Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Ningnanmycin in tobacco. Pestic Biochem Phys 111:14–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ryu C, Murphy JF, Reddy M, Kloepper JW (2007) A two-strain mixture of rhizobacteria elicits induction of systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae and Cucumber mosaic virus coupled to promotion of plant growth on Arabidopsis thaliana. J Microbiol Biotechnol 17:280Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    El-Dougdoug KhA, Ghaly MF, Taha MA (2012) Biological control of Cucumber Mosaic Virus by certain local streptomyces isolates: inhibitory effects of selected five Egyptian isolates. Int J Virol 8:151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    El-Borollosy AM, Oraby MM (2012) Induced systemic resistance against Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus and promotion of cucumber growth by some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Ann Agric Sci 57:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Khalimi K, Suprapta DN (2011) Induction of plant resistance against Soybean stunt virus using some formulations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J ISSAAS Int Soc Southeast Asian Agric Sci 17:98–105Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wang S, Wu H, Qiao J, Ma L, Liu J, Xia Y, Gao X (2009) Molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion and induced systemic resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus by Bacillus spp. J Microbiol Biotechnol 19:1250–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Al Shami R, Ismail I, Hammad Y (2017) Effect of three species of rhizobacteria (PGPR) in stimulating systemic resistance on tomato plants against Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). SSRG-IJAES 4(6):11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jetiyanon K, Kloepper JW (2002) Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for induction of systemic resistance against multiple plant diseases. Biol Control 24:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mann EW (1965) Inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus by a bacterial extract. Phytopathology 59:658–662Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Galal AM (2006) Induction of systemic acquired resistance in cucumber plant against Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus by local Streptomyces strains. Pl Pathol J 5:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sonya HM, Galal AM (2005) Identification and antiviral activities of some halotoletant Streptomycetes isolated from Qaroonlake. Int J Agric Biol 7:747–753Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ghaly MF, Awny AM, Galal AM, Askora A (2005) Characterization and action of antiphytoviral agent produced by certain Streptomyces species against Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Egypt. J Biotechnol 19:209–223Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bhikshapathi DVRN, Krishna DR, Kishan V (2010) Anti-HIV, antitubercular and mutagenic activities of borrelidin. Indian J Biotechnol 9:265–270Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chaudhary HS, Soni B, Shrivastava AR, Shrivastava S (2013) Diversity and versatility of Actinomycetes and its role in antibiotic production. J Appl Pharm Sci 3:883–894Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shafie RM, Hamed AH, El-Sharkawy HHA (2016) Inducing systemic resistance against Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus using Streptomyces spp. Egypt J Phytopathol 44:127–142Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mansour FA, Soweha HE, Desouki SSAS, Mohamadin AH (1988) Studies on the antiviral activity of some bacterial isolates belonging to Streptomycetes. Egypt J Bot 31:167–183Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Galal AM, El-Sherbieny SA (1995) Antiphytoviral activity of caesearhodomycin isolated from Streptomyces caesius var. Egypt Fac Educ, Ain Shams Univ 20:121–128Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yassin MH, Galal AM (1998) Antiphytoviral potentialities of some fungi and actinomycete isolates against kidney bean plants infected with TNV. In: 1st Conf Protec Egypt, pp 156–161Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ara I, Bukhari NA, Aref NM, Shinwari MMA, Bakir MA (2012) Antiviral activities of Streptomycetes against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in datura plant: evaluation of different organic compounds in their metabolites. African J Biotechnol 11:2130–2138Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mohamed SH, Omran WM, Abdel-Salam MS, Sheri ASA, Sadik AS (2012) Isolation and identification of some halotolerant actinomycetes having antagonistic activities against some plant pathogens (i.e. Tobacco mosaic virus, Aspergillus sp. & Fusarium sp.) from soil of Taif governorate KSA. Pak J Biotechnol 9:1–12Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Elbadry M, Taha RM, Eldougdoug KA, Gamal-Eldin H (2006) Induction of systemic resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (BYMV) via seed bacterization with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Plant Dis Protect 113(6):247–251Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shoman SA, Abd-Allah NA, El-Baz AF (2003) Induction of resistance to Tobacco necrosis virus in bean plants by certain microbial isolates. Egypt J Biol 5:10–18Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sofy AR, Attia MS, Sharaf AMA, El-Dougdoug KhA (2014) Potential impacts of seed bacterization or salix extract in faba bean for enhancing protection against bean yellow mosaic disease. Nat Sci 12(10):67–82Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Megahed AA, El-Dougdoug KA, Othman BA, Lashin SM, Ibrahim MA, Sofy AR (2013) Induction of resistance in tomato plants against tomato mosaic tobamovirus using beneficial microbial isolates. Pak J Biol Sci 16:385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Li Y, Guo Q, Li Y, Sun Y, Xue Q, Lai H (2019) Streptomyces pactum Act12 controls tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease and alters rhizosphere microbial communities. Biol Fertil Soils 55:149–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Li H, Ding X, Wang C, Ke H, Wu Z, Wang Y, Liu H, Guo J (2016) Control of tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease by Enterobacter asburiae BQ9 as a result of priming plant resistance in tomatoes. Turk J Biol 40:150–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Al-Ani AR, Adhab AM, Matny NO (2013) Management of potato virus Y (PVY) in potato by some biocontrol agent under field condition. Int J Microbiol Mycol 1(1):1–6Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Maurhofer M, Hase C, Meuwly Ph, Métraux J-P, Défago G (1994) Induction of systemic resistance of tobacco to tobacco necrosis virus by the root colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0: influence of the gacA gene and of pyoverdine production. Phytopathology 84:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ranasinghe C, De Costa1 DM, Basnayake BMVS, Gunasekera DM, Priyadharshani S, Navagamuwa NVR (2018) Potential of Rhizobacterial Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. to Manage Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease of Papaya (Carica papaya (L.). Trop Agric Res 29(4):271–283Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hyakumachi M (1994) Plant-growth-promoting fungi from turfgrass rhizosphere with potential for disease suppression. Soil Microorg 44:53–68Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Macia-Vicente JG, Jansson HB, Talbot NJ, Lopez-Llorca LV (2009) Real-time PCR quantification and live-cell imaging of endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by Fusarium equiseti and Pochonia chlamydosporia. New Phytol 182:213–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lee G, Lee S-H, Kim KM, Ryu C-M (2017) Foliar application of the leaf colonizing yeast Pseudozyma churashimaensis elicits systemic defense of pepper against bacterial and viral pathogens. Sci Rep 7:39432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Elsharkawy M, Shimizu M, Takahashi H, Hyakumachi M (2012) Induction of systemic resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus by Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 in Arabidopsis and tobacco. Plant Pathol 61:964–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Elsharkawy MM, Shimizu M, Takahashi H, Hyakumachi M (2012) The plant growth-promoting fungus Fusarium equiseti and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae induce systemic resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in cucumber plants. Plant Soil 361:397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Elsharkawy MM, Suga H, Shimizu M (2018) Systemic resistance induced by Phoma sp. GS8–3 and nanosilica against Cucumber mosaic virus. Environ Sci Pollut Res.
  90. 90.
    Elsharkawy MM, Mousa KM (2015) Induction of systemic resistance against Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) and its vector Myzus persicae by Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 and silica (Sio2) nanopowder. Int J Pest Manag 61:353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Harman GE, Howell CR, Viterbo A, Chet I, Lorito M (2004) Trichoderma species-opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts. Nat Rev 2:43–56Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Elsharkawy MM, Shimizu M, Takahashi H, Ozaki K, Hyakumachi M (2013) Induction of systemic resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1. Plant Pathol J 29:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kolase SV, Sawant DM (2007) Isolation and efficacy of antiviral principles from Trichoderma spp. against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on tomato. J Maharashtra Agric Univ 32:108–110Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Elsharkawy MM, Abass JM, Kamel SM, Hyakumachi M (2017) The plant growth promoting fungus Penicillium sp. GP16-2 enhances the growth and confers protection against Cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco. J Virol Sci 1:145–154Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vitti A, Pellegrini E, Nali C, Lovelli S, Sofo A, Valerio M, Scopa A, Nuzzaci M (2016) Trichoderma harzianum T-22 Induces Systemic Resistance in Tomato Infected by Cucumber mosaic virus. Front Plant Sci 7:1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Protection and Biomolecular Diagnosis DepartmentArid Lands Cultivation Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological ApplicationsNew Borg El Arab, AlexandriaEgypt

Personalised recommendations