Advertisement

Policies and Regulatory Frames in the EU and the Needed Link with Spatial Planning

  • Carlo RegaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Cities and Nature book series (CITIES)

Abstract

The driving forces of territorial transformation examined in the previous chapters produce effects at the local level but what is observed empirically is the resultant of the mediation realized by the political institutions, the system of regulations in place and the complex institutional technologies through which planning systems are articulated. Territorial policies—i.e. policies with an explicit or implicit spatial component that are able to influence patterns of landscape transformation either directly or indirectly—are a pivotal element of this complex. In this chapter, the focus will be on the most relevant European Policies in terms of territorial transformations. In particular, the following policies will be addressed: the Habitat Directive, the Water Framework Directive, The European Biodiversity Strategy (and its focus on ecosystem service and Green Infrastructure) and the Common Agricultural Policies. For each of them, the link (implicit, explicit, or in need to be fully developed and exploited) with spatial planning is addressed and discussed. The role of the “environmental safeguard directives” and in particular Strategic Environmental Assessment as a cross-cutting policy tool to foster ecological rationality is also discussed. A substantial and deep integration between planning policies and agricultural policies is put forward as a pressing need in order to advance towards ecological rationality in spatial planning.

Keywords

Territorial policies Habitat directive Water framework directive Strategic environmental assessment Biodiversity strategy Ecosystem services MAES Green infrastructure Common agricultural policy Rural development policy 

References

  1. Ahern J (1995) Greenways as a planning strategy. Landsc Urban Plan 33:131–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alahuhta J, Hokka V, Saarikoski H, Hellsten S (2010) Practical integration of river basin and land use planning: lessons learned from two Finnish case studies. Geogr J 176(4):319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albert C, Aronson J, Fürst C, Opdam P (2014) Integrating ecosystem services in landscape planning: requirements, approaches, and impacts. Landscape Ecol 29:1277–1285.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0085-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albert C, Hauck J, Buhr N, von Haaren C (2014a) What ecosystem services information do users want? Investigating interests and requirements among landscape and regional planners in Germany. Landscape Ecol 29(8):1301–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albert C, Aronson J, Fürst C, Opdam P (2014b) Integrating ecosystem services in landscape planning: requirements, approaches, and impacts. Landscape Ecol 29(8):1277–1285.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0085-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Almenar JB, Rugani B, Geneletti D, Brewer T (2018) Integration of ecosystem services into a conceptual spatial planning framework based on a landscape ecology perspective. Landscape Ecol 33(12):2047–2059.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-018-0727-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alphandéry P, Fortier A (2001) Can a territorial policy be based on science alone? The system for creating the Natura 2000 network in France. Sociol Rural 41(3):311–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bastian O, Grunewald K, Syrbe R, Walz U, Wende W (2014) Landscape services: the concept and its practical relevance. Landsc Ecol 29(9):1463–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batáry P, Dicks LV, Kleijn D, Sutherland WJ (2015) The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology 29(4):1006–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Böhme K, Waterhout B (2008) The Europeanization of planning. Euro Spatial Res Plan 225–248Google Scholar
  11. Brady M, Kellermann K, Sahrbacher C, Jelinek L (2009) Impacts of decoupled agricultural support on farm structure, biodiversity and landscape mosaic: some EU results. J Agric Econ 60(3):563–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryan S (2012) Contested boundaries, contested places: The Natura 2000 network in Ireland. J Rural Stud 28(1):80–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W (2009) Landscapes’ capacities to provide ecosystem services–a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landscape online 15(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bull JW, Jobstvogt N, Böhnke-Henrichs A, Mascarenhas A, Sitas N, Baulcomb C, …, Carter-Silk E (2016) Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats: a SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework. Ecosyst Serv 17:99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Camagni R (2014) “Extended” transfer of development rights and urban land rent: a conflict with equity and territorial quality [Perequazione urbanistica “estesa”, rendita e finanziarizzazione immobiliare: Un conflitto con l’equità e la qualità territoriale]. Scienze Regionali 13(2):29–44Google Scholar
  16. Carmona-Torres C, Parra-López C, Groot JCJ, Rossing WAH (2011) Collective action for multi-scale environmental management: Achieving landscape policy objectives through cooperation of local resource managers. Landsc Urban Plann 103(1):24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carter JG (2007) Spatial planning, water and the water framework directive: insights from theory and practice. Geogr J 173(4):330–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cortignani R, Dono G (2019) CAP’s environmental policy and land use in arable farms: an impacts assessment of greening practices changes in italy. Sci Total Environ 647:516–524.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cortinovis C, Zulian G, Geneletti D (2018) Assessing nature-based recreation to support urban green infrastructure planning in Trento (Italy). Land 7(4).  https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Costanza R, D’Arge R, De Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Van Den Belt M (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387(6630):253–260.  https://doi.org/10.1038/387253a0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cotella G, Janin Rivolin U (2015) Europeanization of territorial governance: an analytical model [Europeizzazione del governo del territorio: Un modello analitico]. Territorio (73):127–134Google Scholar
  22. Dear M, Scott AJ (1981) Towards a framework for analysis. In: Dear Michael, Scott Allen J (eds) Urbanization and urban planning in capitalist society. Methuen, London, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  23. Desjeux Y, Dupraz P, Kuhlman T, Paracchini ML, Michels R, Maigné E, Reinhard S (2015) Evaluating the impact of rural development measures on nature value indicators at different spatial levels: Application to France and The Netherlands. Ecol Ind 59:41–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Groot RS, Alkemade R, Braat L, Hein L, Willemen L (2010) Challenges in integrating the concept of ecosystem services and values in landscape planning, management and decision making. Ecol complex 7(3):260–272Google Scholar
  25. Díaz M, Concepción ED (2016) Enhancing the effectiveness of CAP greening as a conservation tool: a plea for regional targeting considering landscape constraints. Current Landsc Ecol Rep 1(4):168–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Di Marino M, Tiitu M, Lapintie K, Viinikka A, Kopperoinen L (2019) Integrating green infrastructure and ecosystem services in land use planning. Results from two Finnish case studies. Land Use Policy 82:643–656.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.01.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dick J, Maes J, Smith RI, Paracchini ML, Zulian G (2014) Cross-scale analysis of ecosystem services identified and assessed at local and European level. Ecol Ind 38:20–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dicks LV, Hodge I, Randall NP, Scharlemann JP, Siriwardena GM, Smith HG, … , Sutherland WJ (2014) A transparent process for “evidence‐informed” policy making. Conserv Lett 7(2):119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Drakou EG, Crossman ND, Willemen L, Burkhard B, Palomo I, Maes J, Peedell S (2015) A visualization and data-sharing tool for ecosystem service maps: lessons learnt, challenges and the way forward. Ecosyst Serv 13:134–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.12.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dramstad W, Olson JD, Forman RT (1996) Landscape ecology principles in landscape architecture and land-use planning. Island Press, Wasgington, DCGoogle Scholar
  31. Duarte GT, Santos PM, Cornelissen TG, Ribeiro MC, Paglia AP (2018) The effects of landscape patterns on ecosystem services: meta-analyses of landscape services. Landscape Ecol 33(8):1247–1257.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-018-0673-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dühr S, Stead D, Zonneveld W (2007) The europeanization of spatial planning through territorial cooperation. Plann Pract Res 22(3):291–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dühr S, Colomb C, Nadin V (2010) European spatial planning and territorial cooperation. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dupraz P, Latouche K, Turpin N (2009) Threshold effect and co-ordination of agri-environmental efforts. J Environ Plan Manag 52(5):613–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. EC (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities L 327, pp. 1–73Google Scholar
  36. EC (European Commission) (2001) European Governance A White Paper (COM (2001) 428). European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  37. EC (European Commission) (2008) Turning Territorial Diversity into Strength Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion (COM(2008) 616) Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European CommunitiesGoogle Scholar
  38. EC (European Commission) (2011c) Our life insurance, Our Natural Capital: An EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 (COM(2011) 244). European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  39. EEA (European Environmental Agency), (2006), Urban sprawl in Europe—the ignored challenge, EEA report no. 10/2006, European Environment Agency. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  40. EEA (European Environmental Agency) (2016) The direct and indirect impacts of EU policies on land. EEA Report No. 8/2016. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  41. EEC (European Economic Commission) (1979) Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds. Official Journal of the European Communities L 103 Vol 22Google Scholar
  42. Elorrieta B (2018) Spain following in the EU’s footsteps: the europeanization of spatial planning in its autonomous communities. Plan Pract Res 33(2):154–171.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02697459.2018.1475849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Englund O, Berndes G, Cederberg C (2017) How to analyse ecosystem services in landscapes—a systematic review. Ecol Ind 73:492–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Erhard M, Banko G, Malak DA, Martin FS (2017) Mapping ecosystem types and conditions. In Burkhard B, Maes J (eds) Mapping ecosystem services. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, pp 75–80Google Scholar
  45. Estreguil C, Caudullo G, Rega C, Paracchini M. (2016) Enhancing connectivity, improving green infrastructure. Cost-benefit solutions for forest and agri-environment. A pilot study in Lombardy. JRC technical report EUR 28142 EN. Publications of the European Union, Luxembourg.  https://doi.org/10.2788/774717
  46. EU Ministers Responsible for Spatial Planning and Territorial Development. (2011) Territorial agenda of the European Union 2020—towards an inclusive, smart and sustainable europe of diverse regions. http://www.eu2011.hu/files/bveu/documents/TA2020.pdf
  47. European Commission (EC) (2011) Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 European Commission, COM (2011) 244, Brussels (2011)Google Scholar
  48. European Commission (EC) (2013) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Green Infrastructure (GI)—Enhancing Europe’s Natural Capital. COM (2013) 249 final. BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  49. European Commission (EC) (2015) Report from the commission to the European parliament and the council. The mid-term review of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020. COM (2015) 478 finalGoogle Scholar
  50. European Commission (EC) (2018) Proposal for a Regulation of The European Parliament and of the Council establishing rules on support for strategic plans to be drawn up by Member States under the Common agricultural policy (CAP Strategic Plans) and financed by the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) and by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and repealing Regulation (EU) No 1305/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EU) No. 1307/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council. COM (2018) 392 final, 01.06.2018Google Scholar
  51. European Court of Auditors (2011) Is agri-environment support well designed and managed? Special Report No. 7. European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg, p 75Google Scholar
  52. Evers and Tennekes (2016) Europe exposed: mapping the impacts of EU policies on spatial planning in the Netherlands. Eur Plan Stud 24(10):1747–1765.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2016.1183593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Falco E, Chiodelli F (2018) The transfer of development rights in the midst of the economic crisis: potential, innovation and limits in Italy. Land Use Policy 72:381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Faludi A (2014) Europeanisation or Europeanisation of spatial planning? Plan Theory Pract 15(2):155–169.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2014.902095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fastelli L, Rovai M, Andreoli M (2018) A spatial integrated database for the enhancement of the agricultural custodianship role (SIDECAR)—some preliminary tests using Tuscany as a case-study Region. Land Use Policy 78:791–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fischer TB, Sykes O, Gore T, Marot N, Golobič M, Pinho P et al (2015) Territorial impact assessment of european draft directives—the emergence of a new policy assessment instrument. Eur Plann Stud 23(3):433–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fleurke F, Willemse R (2007) Effects of the European Union on Sub‐National Decision‐Making: Enhancement or Constriction?. J Euro Integr 29(1):69–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Frank S, Fürst C, Witt A, Koschke L, Makeschin F (2014) Making use of the ecosystem services concept in regional planning—trade-offs from reducing water erosion. Landscape Ecol 29(8):1377–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Franks JR, Emery SB (2013) Incentivising collaborative conservation: Lessons from existing environmental Stewardship Scheme options. Land Use Policy 30(1):847–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Frederiksen P, Mäenpää M, Hokka V (2008) The water framework directive: spatial and institutional integration. Manag Environ Qual: Int J 19(1):100–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Früh-Müller A, Bach M, Breuer L, Hotes S, Koellner T, Krippes C, Wolters V (2019) The use of agri-environmental measures to address environmental pressures in Germany: spatial mismatches and options for improvement. Land use Policy 84:347–362.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.10.049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Galler C, Albert C, von Haaren C (2016) From regional environmental planning to implementation: paths and challenges of integrating ecosystem services. Ecosyst Serv 18:118–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.02.031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Garmendia E, Apostolopoulou E, Adams WM, Bormpoudakis D (2016) Biodiversity and green infrastructure in Europe: Boundary object or ecological trap? Land Use Policy 56:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Geneletti D (2011) Reasons and options for integrating ecosystem services in strategic environmental assessment of spatial planning. Int J Biodivers Sci, Ecosyst Serv Manag 7(3):143–149.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2011.617711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Geneletti D (2013) Assessing the impact of alternative land-use zoning policies on future ecosystem services. Environ Impact Assess Rev 40(1):25–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2012.12.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Geneletti D, Cortinovis C, Zardo L, Esmail BA (2020) Planning for ecosystem services in cities. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gocht A, Ciaian P, Bielza M, Terres JM, Röder N, Himics M, et al (2017) EU-wide Economic and Environmental Impacts of CAP Greening with High Spatial and Farm-type Detail. J Agric Econ 68(3):651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gómez-Baggethun E, Ruiz-Pérez M (2011) Economic valuation and the commodification of ecosystem services. Prog Phys Geogr 35(5):613–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gómez-Baggethun E, Muradian R (2015) In markets we trust? Setting the boundaries of market-based instruments in ecosystem services governance. Ecol Econ 117:217–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.03.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gottero E (2019) Approaching a vision of agrarian urbanism: innovative domains, key definitions and concepts. In Agrourbanism, Springer, Cham, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  71. Gottero E, Cassatella C (2017) Landscape indicators for rural development policies. Application of a core set in the case study of Piedmont region. Environ Impact Assess Rev 65:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Haines-Young RH, Potschin MB (2010) The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human wellbeing. In: Raffaelli DG, Frid CLJ (eds) Ecosystem ecology: a new synthesis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 110–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Haines-Young R, Potschin MB (2018) Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) V5.1 and guidance on the application of the revised structure. www.cices.eu)
  74. Harvey D (2001) Globalization and the ‘spatial fix’. Geographische Revue 3(2):23–30Google Scholar
  75. Hebbert M (2009) The three Ps of place making for climate change. Town Plann Rev 80(4):359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jaligot R, Chenal J (2019) Integration of ecosystem services in regional spatial plans in western Switzerland. Sustainability (Switzerland) 11(2).  https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jax K, Furman E, Saarikoski H, Barton DN, Delbaere B, Dick J, Duke G, Görg C, Gómez-Baggethun E, Harrison PA, Maes J, Pérez-Soba M, Saarela S, Turkelboomm F, van Dijk J, Watt AD (2018) Handling a messy world: lessons learned when trying to make the ecosystem services concept operational. Ecosyst Serv 29:415–427.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jessop B (1990) State Theory: Putting the Capitalist State in its Place. Pennsylvania State University Press, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  79. Jones KB, Zurlini G, Kienast F, Petrosillo I, Edwards T, Wade TG, Zaccarelli N (2013) Informing landscape planning and design for sustaining ecosystem services from existing spatial patterns and knowledge. Landscape Ecol 28(6):1175–1192.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-012-9794-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. JRC (Joint Research Centre) (2013), Direct and indirect land use impacts of the EU cohesion policy: assessment with the land use modelling system. JRC report EUR 26460. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxemburg.  https://doi.org/10.2788/60631
  81. JRC (Joint Research Centre) (2019) WikiCAP—Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC). https://marswiki.jrc.ec.europa.eu/wikicap/index.php/Good_Agricultural_and_Environmental_Conditions_(GAEC). Accessed 26 Apr 2019
  82. Kaczorowska A, Kain JH, Kronenberg J, Haase D (2016) Ecosystem services in urban land use planning: Integration challenges in complex urban settings—case of Stockholm. Ecosyst Serv 22:204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kilbane S (2013) Green infrastructure: planning a national green network for Australia. J Landsc Arch 8:64–73Google Scholar
  84. Kopperoinen L, Itkonen P, Niemelä J (2014) Using expert knowledge in combining green infrastructure and ecosystem services in land use planning: an insight into a new place-based methodology. Landscape Ecol 29(8):1361–1375.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0014-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kosoy N, Corbera E (2010) Payments for ecosystem services as commodity fetishism. Ecol Econ 6:1228–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kuhfuss L, Préget R, Thoyer S, Hanley N (2015) Nudging farmers to enroll land into agrienvironmental schemes: the role of a collective bonus. Eur Rev Agric Econ 43(4):609–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kukkala AS, Moilanen A (2017) Ecosystem services and connectivity in spatial conservation prioritization. Landsc Ecol 32(1):5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. La Notte A, D'Amato D, Mäkinen H, Paracchini ML, Liquete C, Egoh B, et al. (2017) Ecosystem services classification: A systems ecology perspective of the cascade framework. Ecol Indic 74:392–402Google Scholar
  89. La Rosa D, Privitera R (2013) Characterization of non-urbanized areas for land-use planning of agricultural and green infrastructure in urban contexts. Landsc Urban Plan 109(1):94–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.05.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lafortezza R, Davies C, Sanesi G, Konijnendijk CC (2013) Green infrastructure as a tool to support spatial planning in European urban regions. IForest 6(1):102–108.  https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0723-006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lefebvre M, Espinosa M, Gomez y Paloma S, Paracchini ML, Piorr A, Zasada I (2015) Agricultural landscapes as multi-scale public good and the role of the common agricultural policy. J Environ Plan Manag 58(12):2088–2112.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2014.891975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Leibenath M (2011) Exploring substantive interfaces between spatial planning and ecological networks in Germany. Plan Pract Res 26(3):257–270.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02697459.2011.580110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lennon M, Scott M (2014) Delivering ecosystems services via spatial planning: Reviewing the possibilities and implications of a green infrastructure approach. Town Plann Rev 85(5):563–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lennon M, Scott M, Collier M, Foley K (2017) The emergence of green infrastructure as promoting the centralisation of a landscape perspective in spatial planning—the case of Ireland. Landsc Res 42(2):146–163.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2016.1229460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Leventon J, Schaal T, Velten S, Dänhardt J, Fischer J, Abson DJ, Newig J (2017) Collaboration or fragmentation? Biodiversity management through the common agricultural policy. Land Use Policy 64:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Liquete C, Kleeschulte S, Dige G, Maes J, Grizzetti B, Olah B, Zulian G (2015) Mapping green infrastructure based on ecosystem services and ecological networks: a pan-European case study. Environ Sci Policy 54:268–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Luukkonen J (2017) A practice theoretical perspective on the Europeanization of spatial planning. Eur Plan Stud 25(2):259–277.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2016.1260092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Maes J (2017) Specific challenges of mapping ecosystem services. In Burkhard B, Maes J (eds) Mapping ecosystem services. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, pp 87–89Google Scholar
  99. Maes J, Egoh B, Willemen L, Liquete C, Vihervaara P, Schägner JP, Grizzetti B, Drakou EG, La Notte A, Zulian G, Bouraoui F, Paracchini ML, Braat L, Bidoglio G (2012) Mapping ecosystem services for policy support and decision making in the European Union. Ecosyst Serv 1:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Maes J, Teller A, Erhard M, Liquete C, Braat L, Berry P, Egoh B, Puydarrieux P, Fiorina C, Santos F, Paracchini ML, et al (2013) Mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services. An analytical framework for ecosystem assessments under action 5 of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020. Publications office of the European Union, Luxembourg.  https://doi.org/10.2779/12398
  101. Maes J, Fabrega N, Zulian G, et al (2015) Mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services—trends in ecosystems and ecosystem services in the European Union between 2000 and 2010. JRC technical report JRC94889, EUR 27143 EN. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.  https://doi.org/10.2788/341839
  102. Maes J, Liquete C, Teller A, Erhard M, Paracchini ML, Barredo JI, Lavalle C (2016) An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020. Ecosyst Serv 17:14–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.10.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Marando F, Salvatori E, Sebastiani A, Fusaro L, Manes F (2019) Regulating ecosystem services and green infrastructure: assessment of urban heat island effect mitigation in the municipality of Rome, Italy. Ecol Model 392:92–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2018.11.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Martínez-Alier J (1987) Ecological economics: energy, economics, society. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  105. Masante D, Rega C, Cottam A, Dubois G, Paracchini ML (2015) Indicators of biodiversity in agroecosystems: insights from Article 17 of the Habitats Directive and IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. JRC Technical report EUR 27536 EN. Publication Offie of the European Union, Luxemburg  https://doi.org/10.2788/255057
  106. Mascarenhas A, Ramos TB, Haase D, Santos R (2015) Ecosystem services in spatial planning and strategic environmental assessment—a European and Portuguese profile. Land Use Policy 48:158–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. McHarg IL (1969) Design with nature. American Museum of Natural History, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. McKenzie AJ, Emery SB, Franks JR, Whittingham MJ (2013) Landscape-scale conservation: collaborative agri-environment schemes could benefit both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but will farmers be willing to participate? J Appl Ecol 50(5):1274–1280Google Scholar
  109. McShane TO, Hirsch PD, Trung TC, Songorwa AN, Kinzig A, Monteferri B, et al. (2011) Hard choices: Making trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Biol Conserv 144(3):966–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Meyer C, Reutter M, Matzdorf B, Sattler C, Schomers S (2015) Design rules for successful governmental payments for ecosystem services: taking agri-environmental measures in Germany as an example. J Environ Manage 157:146–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Miessner M (2018) Spatial planning amid crisis. The deepening of neoliberal logic in Germany. Int Plan Stud 1–20Google Scholar
  112. Mooney P (2014) A systematic approach to incorporating multiple ecosystem services in landscape planning and design. Landscape Journal 33(2):141–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Moreno J, Palomo I, Escalera J, Martín-López B, Montes C (2014) Incorporating ecosystem services into ecosystem-based management to deal with complexity: a participative mental model approach. Landscape Ecol 29(8):1407–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Norton BA, Coutts AM, Livesley SJ, Harris RJ, Hunter AM, Williams NSG (2015) Planning for cooler cities: a framework to prioritise green infrastructure to mitigate high temperatures in urban landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 134:127–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.10.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ogorevc M, Slabe-Erker R (2018) Assessment of the European common agricultural policy and landscape changes: an example from slovenia. Agricultural Economics (Czech Republic) 64(11):489–498.  https://doi.org/10.17221/337/2017-AGRICECONCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Owens S, Cowell R (2011) Land and Limits. Interpreting Sustainability in the Planning Process. Routledge, London  https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203832226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Palomo I, Adamescu M, Bagstad KJ, Cazacu C, Klug H, Nedkov S (2017) Tools for mapping ecosystem services. In Burkhard B, Maes J (eds) (2017) Mapping ecosystem services. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, pp 70–73Google Scholar
  118. Pappalardo V, La Rosa D, Campisano A, La Greca P (2017) The potential of green infrastructure application in urban runoff control for land use planning: a preliminary evaluation from a southern Italy case study. Ecosyst Serv 26:345–354.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Paracchini ML, Zulian G, Kopperoinen L, Maes J, Schägner JP, Termansen M, Zandersen M, Perez-Soba M, Scholefield PA, Bidoglio G (2014) Mapping cultural ecosystem services: A framework to assess the potential for outdoor recreation across the EU. Ecol Ind 45:371–385.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.04.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Paracchini ML, Correia T, Loupa-Ramos I, Capitani C, Madeira L (2016) Progress in indicators to assess agricultural landscape valuation: how and what is measured at different levels of governance. Land Use Policy 53:71–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.05.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Penko Seidl N, Golobič M (2018) The effects of EU policies on preserving cultural landscape in the alps. Landsc Res 43(8):1085–1096.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2018.1503237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pe’er G, Zinngrebe Y, Hauck J, Schindler S, Dittrich A, Zingg S, …, Schmidt J (2017) Adding some green to the greening: improving the EU’s ecological focus areas for biodiversity and farmers. Conserv Lett 10(5):517–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pe’er G, Dicks LV, Visconti P et al (2014) EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity. Science 344:1090–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pérez-Soba M, Verweij P, Saarikoski H, Harrison PA, Barton DN, Furman E (2018) Maximising the value of research on ecosystem services: knowledge integration and guidance tools mediating the science, policy and practice interfaces. Ecosyst Serv 29:599–607.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Peterson MJ, Hall DM, Feldpausch-Parker AM, Peterson TR (2010) Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept. Conserv Biol 24(1):113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Piorr A, Viaggi D (2015) The spatial dimension of public payments for rural development: evidence on allocation practices, impact mechanisms, CMEF indicators, and scope for improvement. Ecol Ind 59:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Poulantzas N (2013) State, Power, Socialism. New ed. Verso classics 29, Verso, LondonGoogle Scholar
  128. Prager K, Reed M, Scott A (2012) Encouraging collaboration for the provision of ecosystem services at a landscape scale—rethinking agri-environmental payments. Land Use Policy 29(1):244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Primdahl J, Kristensen LS, Busck AG (2013) The farmer and landscape management: different roles, different policy approaches. Geography Compass 7(4):300–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pruetz R, Standridge N (2008) What makes transfer of development rights work? Success factors from research and practice. J Am Plan Assoc 75(1):78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Radaelli KFCM (2003) The politics of Europeanization. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  132. Raggi M, Viaggi D, Bartolini F, Furlan A (2015) The role of policy priorities and targeting in the spatial location of participation in agri-environmental schemes in Emilia-Romagna (Italy). Land Use Policy 47:78–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rall EL, Kabisch N, Hansen R (2015) A comparative exploration of uptake and potential application of ecosystem services in urban planning. Ecosyst Serv 16:230–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rega C (2013) Ecological compensation in spatial planning in Italy. Impact Assess Proj Apprais 31(1):45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rega C (ed) (2014a) Landscape planning and rural development: key issues and options towards integration. Springer, Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht and LondonGoogle Scholar
  136. Rega C (2014b). Pursuing integration between rural development policies and landscape planning: towards a territorial governance approachGoogle Scholar
  137. Rega C, Bartual AM, Bocci G, Sutter L, Albrecht M, Moonen AC, Jeanneret P, van der Werf W, Pfister SC, Holland JM, Paracchini ML (2018) A pan-European model of landscape potential to support natural pest control services. Ecol Ind 90:653–664.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.03.075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rozas-Vásquez D, Fürst C, Geneletti D, Almendra O (2018) Integration of ecosystem services in strategic environmental assessment across spatial planning scales. Land Use Policy 71:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rudnick DA, Ryan SJ, Beier P, Cushman SA, Dieffenbach F, Epps CW, Gerber LR, Hartter J, Jenness JS, Kintsch J, Merenlender AM, Perkl RM, Preziosi DV, Trombulak SC (2012) The role of landscape connectivity in planning and implementing conservation and restoration priorities. Issues Ecol 16:1–23Google Scholar
  140. Santangelo M (2019) Contraposition, juxtaposition, and transposition of the urban and the rural. In Gottero E (ed) Agrourbanism, Springer, Cham, pp 63–71Google Scholar
  141. Scolozzi R, Morri E, Santolini R (2012) Delphi-based change assessment in ecosystem service values to support strategic spatial planning in Italian landscapes. Ecol Ind 21:134–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.07.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sharp R, Tallis HT, Ricketts T, Guerry AD, Wood SA, Chaplin-Kramer R, et al (2016) InVEST + VERSION + User’s Guide. The Natural Capital Project, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  143. Sitas N, Prozesky HE, Esler KJ, Reyers B (2014) Opportunities and challenges for mainstreaming ecosystem services in development planning: perspectives from a landscape level. Landscape Ecol 29(8):1315–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Slätmo E, Nilsson K, Turunen E (2019) Implementing green infrastructure in spatial planning in Europe. Land 8(4).  https://doi.org/10.3390/land8040062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Snäll T, Lehtomäki J, Arponen A, Elith J, Moilanen A (2016) Green infrastructure design based on spatial conservation prioritization and modeling of biodiversity features and ecosystem services. Environ Manage 57(2):251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Spaziante A, Rega C, Carbone M (2013) Spatial analysis of agri-environmental measures for the SEA of rural development programmes. Sci Regionali—Italian J RegNal Sci 12(2):93–116Google Scholar
  147. Star SR, Griesemer JR (1989) Institutional ecology, ‘Translations’ and boundaryobjects: amateurs and professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. Soc Stud Sci 19:3387–3470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Stead D, Meijers E (2009) Spatial planning and policy integration: concepts, facilitators and inhibitors. Plan Theory Pract 10(3):317–332.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14649350903229752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sutherland WJ, Dicks LV, Ockendon N, Smith RK (eds) (2015) What works in conservation. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  150. Termorshuizen JW, Opdam P (2009) Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecology and sustainable development. Landscape Ecol 24(8):1037–1052.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9314-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Toman M (1998) Why not to calculate the value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Ecol Econ 25(1):57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Uthes S, Matzdorf B (2013) Studies on agri-environmental measures: a survey of the literature. Environ Manage 51(1):251–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Uthes S, Matzdorf B, Müller K, Kaechele H (2010) Spatial targeting of agri-environmental measures: cost-effectiveness and distributional consequences. Environ Manage 46(3):494–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Vallecillo S, Polce C, Barbosa A, Castillo CP, Vandecasteele I, Rusch GM, Maes J (2018) Spatial alternatives for Green Infrastructure planning across the EU: an ecosystem service perspective. Landsc Urban Plan 174:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. von Haaren C, Albert C, Barkmann J, de Groot RS, Spangenberg JH, Schröter-Schlaack C, Hansjürgens B (2014) From explanation to application: introducing a practice-oriented ecosystem services evaluation (PRESET) model adapted to the context of landscape planning and management. Landsc Ecol 29(8):1335–1346Google Scholar
  156. Westerink J, Opdam P, van Rooij S, Steingröver E (2017a) Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape. Land Use Policy 60:408–418.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.11.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Westerink J, Jongeneel R, Polman N, Prager K, Franks J, Dupraz P, Mettepenningen E (2017b) Collaborative governance arrangements to deliver spatially coordinated agri-environmental management. Land Use Policy 69:176–192.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Willemen L, Verburg PH, Hein L, van Mensvoort MEF (2008) Spatial characterization of landscape functions. Landsc Urban Plann 88(1):34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wissen Hayek U, Teich M, Klein TM, Grêt-Regamey A (2016) Bringing ecosystem services indicators into spatial planning practice: lessons from collaborative development of a web-based visualization platform. Ecol Ind 61:90–99.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.03.035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. World Wildlife Fund (2001) Elements of good practice in integrated river basin management: a practical resource for implementing the EU Water Framework Directive World Wildlife Fund, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  161. Zasada I, Häfner K, Schaller L, van Zanten BT, Lefebvre M, Malak-Rawlikowska A, et al (2017) A conceptual model to integrate the regional context in landscape policy, management and contribution to rural development. Lit Rev Eur Case Stud Evidence Geoforum 82:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zulian G, Maes J, Paracchini ML (2013) Linking land cover data and crop yields for mapping and assessment of pollination services in Europe. Land 2:472–492.  https://doi.org/10.3390/land2030472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zulian G, Stange E, Woods H, Carvalho L, Dick J, Andrews C, …, Rusch GM (2018) Practical application of spatial ecosystem service models to aid decision support. Ecosyst Serv 29:465–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ITERAS - Research Centre for Sustainability and Territorial InnovationBariItaly

Personalised recommendations