Advertisement

Microbiology of African Edible Insects

  • Nils Th. GrabowskiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Each foodstuff hosts a specific micro- and mycobiome during its passage from primary production to the final product to be consumed, and edible insects are no exceptions to the rule. Being so, however, this microbiological profile varies with the species and the environment it is placed in. Taxonomically, the species’ micro/mycobiome contains several species presumably present in all insects, some species which appear to be shared by most if not all insect species belonging to the same order, the same family, and the same genus. The specific array of bacteria and fungi is determined by this taxonomical setup, the species’ instar, and the environment, the latter including the place of origin (wild range resp. farm), and the microbiological features affecting the animal resp. the product during processing and storage. Insect consumption and activities linked to it is backed by a solid tradition seeking to minimize consumer risks. However, changes in this habit, e.g. farming, packaging, transport, and “novel” storage conditions, may pose risks not contemplated by tradition. In this way, it is recommended to re-evaluate these traditions scientifically and adapt traditions to these novel situations.

Keywords

Microbiome Mycobiome Entomophagy Food tradition Food safety Food-borne diseases Food spoilage 

References

  1. Adeoye OT, Alebiosu BI, Akinyemi OD, Adeniran OA (2014) Socio economic analysis of forest edible insects species consumed and its role in the livelihood of people in Lagos State. J Food Stud 3:103–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alamu OT, Amao AO, Nwokedi CI, Oke OA, Lawa IO (2013) Diversity and nutritional status of edible insects in Nigeria: a review. Int J Biodiv Conserv 5:215–222Google Scholar
  3. Amadi EN, Kiin-Kabari DB (2016) Nutritional composition and microbiology of some edible insects commonly eaten in Africa, hurdles and future prospects: a critical review. Food Microbiol Saf Hyg 1:1, 1000107Google Scholar
  4. Amiri A (2017) An investigation of some edible insects as source of human food and animal feed. Graduate School of Applied Sciences of Near East University, Nicosia/CY, thesis, 60 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Awoniyi TAM, Adetuyi FC, Akinyosoye FA (2004) Microbiological investigation of maggot meal, stored for use as livestock feed component. J Food Agricult Environ 2:104–106Google Scholar
  6. Bagumire A, Todd ECD, Muyanja C, Nasinyama GW (2009) National food safety control systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: does Uganda’s aquaculture control system meet international requirements. Food Policy 34:458–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banjo AD, Lawal OA, Adeyemi AI (2006) The microbial fauna associated with the larvae of Oryctes monocerus[sic!]. J Appl Sci Res 2:837–843Google Scholar
  8. Belluco S, Losasso C, Maggioletti M, Alonzi C, Ricci A, Paoletti MG (2015) Edible insects: a food security solution or a food safety concern? Anim Front 5:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braide W, Nwaoguikpe RN (2011) Assessment of microbiological quality and nutritional values of a processed edible weevil caterpillar (Rhynchophorus phoenicis) in Port Harcourt, southern Nigeria. Int J Biol Chem Sci 5:410–418Google Scholar
  10. Braide W, Oranusi S, Udegbunam LI, Oguoma O, Akobondu C, Nwaoguikpee RN (2011) Microbial quality of an edible caterpillar of an emperor moth, Bunaea alcinoe. J Ecol Nat Environ 3:178–180Google Scholar
  11. Debrah SK (2017) Edible insect as a traditional food source among the Akans in southern Ghana. University of Ghana, Accra/GH, thesis, 94 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Dobermann D, Swift JA, Field LM (2017) Opportunities and hurdles of edible insects for food and feed. Nutr Bull 42:293–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. EFDA, Ethiopian Food and Drug Administration (2010) Proclamation no. 1: Proclamation on the Food and Drug Administration. Proclamation no. 661/2009, a proclamation to provide for food, medicine and health care administration and control. Federal Negarit Gazeta of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 16:5157–5191Google Scholar
  14. Fernández Cassi X, Supeanu A, Jansson A, Boqvist S, Vagsholm I (2018) Novel foods: a risk profile for the house cricket (Acheta domesticus). EFSA J 16(S1):e16082. 13 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Government of Sierra Leone (1960) Public health ordinance. www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/1960-23.pdf
  16. Grabowski NT (2017) Speiseinsekten. Behr’s Verlag, Hamburg, 77 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Grabowski NT, Ahlfeld B, Lis KA, Jansen W, Kehrenberg C (2019) The current legal status of edible insects in Europe. Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 132:295–311Google Scholar
  18. Grabowski NT, Klein G (2010) Mikrobiologische und chemische Analyse exotischer Lebensmittel tierischer Herkunft in Europa. Arch Leb 61:63–74Google Scholar
  19. Grabowski NT, Klein G (2017a) Bacteria encountered in raw insect, spider, scorpion, and centipede taxa including edible species, and their significance from the food hygiene point of view. Trends Food Sci Technol 63:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grabowski NT, Klein G (2017b) Microbiology of processed edible insect products—results of a preliminary survey. Int J Food Microbiol 243:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grabowski NT, Klein G (2017c) Microbiology of cooked and dried edible Mediterranean field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) submitted to four different heating treatments. Food Sci Technol Int 23:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grabowski NT, Pingen S, Grootaert P, Klein G (2017) Fungi in raw insect and arachnid taxa containing species used in human entomophagy: a review. Arch Leb 68:39–47Google Scholar
  23. Kelemu S, NIassy S, Torto B, Fiaboe K, Affognon H, Tonnang H, Maniania NK, Ekesi S (2015) African edible insects for food and feed: inventory, diversity, commonalities and contribution to food security. JIFF 1:103–119Google Scholar
  24. Klunder H, Wolkers-Rooijackers J, Korpela J, Nout M (2012) Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects. Food Control 26:628–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kussaga JB, Jacxsens L, Tiisekwa BPM, Luning PA (2014) Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies. J Sci Food Agric 94:2154–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mbata KJ, Chidumayo EN, Lwatula CM (2002) Traditional regulation of edible caterpillars exploitation in the Kopa area of Mpika district in northern Zambia. J Insect Conserv 6:115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Milanović V, Osimani A, Roncolini A, Garofalo C, Aquilanti L, Pasquini M, Tavoletti S, Vignaroli C, Canonico L, Ciani M, Clementi F (2018) Investigation of the dominant microbiota in ready-to-eat grasshoppers and mealworms and quantification of carbapenem resistance genes by qPCR. Frontier Microbiol 9:article 3036. 11 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mutungi C, Irungu FG, Nduko J, Mutua F, Affognon H, Nakimbugwe D, Ekesi S, Fiaboe KKM (2017) Postharvest processes of edible insects in Africa: a review of processing methods, and the implications for nutrition, safety and new products development. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1365330. 23 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ng’ang’a J, Imathiu S, Fombing F, Ayieko M, Broeck JV, Kinyuru J (2019) Microbial quality of edible grasshoppers Ruspolia differens (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): from wild harvesting to fork in the Kagera region. Tanzania. J Food Safety 39:e12549Google Scholar
  30. Ogbalu OK, Williams JO (2015) The edibility, distribution and damage indices of Oryctes monoceros oliv. [Coleoptera: Scarabeidae] an edible larva of the oil palms [Elaise Guineensis] and associated microorganisms [sic!]. J Pharma Biol Sci 10:118–125Google Scholar
  31. Okeke TE, Ewuim SC, Akanne CE, Onnoye BU (2019) Survey of edible insects in relation to their habitat and abundance in awka and environ [sic!]. Int J Entomol Res 4:17–21Google Scholar
  32. Opara MN, Sanyigha FT, Ogbuewu IP, Okoli IC (2012) Studies on the production trend and quality characteristics of palm grubs in the tropical rainforest zone of Nigeria. J Agricult Technol 8:851–860Google Scholar
  33. Osimani A, Garofalo C, Milanović V, Taccari M, Cardinali F, Aquilanti L, Pasquini M, Mozzon M, Raffaelli N, Ruschioni S, Riolo P, Isidoro N, Clementi F (2017) Insight into the proximate composition and microbial diversity of edible insects marketed in the European Union. Eur Food Res Technol 243:1157–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Osimani A, Milanović V, Cardinali F, Garofalo C, Clementi F, Ruschioni S, Riolo P, Isidoro N, Loreto N, Galarini R, Moretti S, Petruzzelli A, Micci A, Tonucci F, Aquilanti L (2018) Distribution of transferable antibiotic resistance genes in laboratory-reared edible mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.). Front Microbiol 9:article 2702. 11 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Raheem D, Carrascosa C, Oluwole OB, Nieuwland M, Saraiva A, Millán R, Raposo A (2018) Traditional consumption of and rearing edible insects in Africa. Asia Eur Critic Rev Food Sci Nutr.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1440191. 20 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Riggi L, Versomesi M, Verspoor R, MacFarlane C (2013) Exploring entomophagy in Northern Benin—practices, perceptions and possibilities. Bugs Life:47Google Scholar
  37. Rumpold BA, Fröhling A, Reinecke K, Knorr D, Boguslawski S, Ehlbeck J, Schlüter O (2014) Comparison of volumetric and surface decontamination techniques for innovative processing of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor). Innov Sci Emerg Technol 26:232–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ssepuuya G, Aringo R, Mukisa I, Nakimbugwe D (2016) Effect of processing, packaging and storage temperature based hurdles in the shelf-stability of sautéed ready-to-eat Ruspolia differens. JIFF 2:245–253Google Scholar
  39. Ssepuya G, Wynants E, Verreth C, Crauwels S, Lievens B, Claes J, Nakimbugwe D, Van Campenhout L (2019) Microbial characterisation of the edible grasshopper Ruspolia differens in raw condition after wild-harvesting in Uganda. Food Microbiol 77:106–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stoops J, Crauwels S, Waud M, Claes J, Lievens B, Van Campenhout L (2016) Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption. Food Microbiol 53:122–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stull VJ, Wamulume M, Mwalukanga MI, Banda A, Bergmans RS (2018) “We like insects here”: entomophagy and society in a Zambian village. Agric Hum Values 35:867–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tanada Y, Kaya HK (1993) Insect pathology. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  43. Tchibozo S, Malaisse F, Mergen P (2016) Insectes consommés par l’homme en Afrique occidentale francophone. Geo-Eco-Trop 40:105–114Google Scholar
  44. UEMOA, Union Économique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (2007) Règlement N° 007/2007/CM/UEMOA relatif à la sécurité sanitaire des végétaux, des animaux et des aliments dans l’UEMOA. www.droit-afrique.com. 42 pp.
  45. Van Huis A (2003) Insects as food in Sub-Saharan Africa. Insect Sci Appl 23:163–185Google Scholar
  46. Vandeweyer D (2018) Microbiological quality of raw edible insects and impact of processing and preservation. KU Leuven/B, thesis, 177 pp.Google Scholar
  47. VarottoBoccazzi I, Ottoboni M, Martin E, Comandatore F, Vallone L, Spranghers T, Eeckhout M, Mereghetti V, Pinotti L, Epis S (2017) A survey of the mycobiota associated with larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) reared for feed production. PLoS One 12:e0182533. 15 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wanjiko EK (2018) Physicochemical and microbiological stability of semi-processed edible crickets (Acheta domesticus) and black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) during storage. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi/KE. 116 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Food Quality and Food SafetyHannover University of Veterinary MedicineHannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations