African Edible Insect Consumption Market

  • Cordelia Ifeyinwa EbenebeEmail author
  • Oluwatosin Samuel Ibitoye
  • Inwele Maduabuchi Amobi
  • Valentine Obinna Okpoko


Consumption is the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs. Africa is home to the rich diversity of insects with over 1500 species of insects. Several reports highlighted the nutritional, medicinal values and industrial uses of some edible insects. The global edible insects market is mainly segmented by insect type, product type, application, and geography. Insects can be grown on organic waste. The potential of edible insects in curbing the menace of malnutrition and ensuring food security has necessitated so much interest in the production, marketing, and utilization of edible insects.


Edible insect Consumption Commercialization Market 


  1. Adeoye TO, Job OO, Abiodun AFT, Dare AO (2014) Eco-diversity of edible insects of Nigeria and its impact on food security. J Bio Life Sci 5(2):175. Scholar
  2. Agbidye FS, Ofuya TI, Akindele SO (2009) Marketability and nutritional qualities of some edible forest insects in Benue State, Nigeria. Pakistan J Nutri 8:917–922. Scholar
  3. Aguirre-Joya JA, De Leon-Zapata MA, Alvarez-Perez OB, Torres-León C, Nieto Oropeza DE, Ventura-Sobrevilla JM, Aguilar CN (2018) Basic and applied concepts of edible packaging for foods. In: Grumezescu AM, Holban AM (eds) Food packaging and preservation. Academic, Cambridge, pp 1–61. Scholar
  4. Akullo J, Agea JG, Obaa BB, Acai JO, Nakimbugwe D (2017) Process development, sensory and nutritional evaluation of honey spread enriched with edible insects flour. Afri J Food Sci 11(2):30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akunne CE, Ononye BU, Mogbo TC (2013) Insects: friends or enemies? Global J Biol Agri Health Sci 2(3):134–140Google Scholar
  6. Alaloiun U (2014) Insects in forests: assemblages, effects of tree diversity and population dynamic. Philipps-Universität Marburg 15(2014):685–692Google Scholar
  7. Alamu OT, Amao AO, Nwokedi CI, Oke OA, Lawa IO (2013) Diversity and nutritional status of edible insects in Nigeria: a review. Inter J Biod Conserv 5(4):215–222. Scholar
  8. Alexandratos N, Bruinsma J (2012) World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision. ESA Working paper no. 12–03. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  9. Amobi MI, Ebenebe CI (2018) Performance of broiler chicks fed two insect based diets in South East, Nigeria. J Insect Food Feed 4(4):263–268. Scholar
  10. Anankware PJ, Fening KO, Osekre E, Obeng-Ofori D (2015) Insects as food and feed: a review. Int. J Agric Res Rev 3(1):143–151Google Scholar
  11. Anankware JP, Osekre EA, Obeng-Ofori D, Khamala C (2016) Identification and inter. J Entomo Res 1(5):33–39Google Scholar
  12. Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C et al (2008) Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. Pharm Res 30(25):2200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ayieko MA, Kinyuru JN, Ndong’a MF, Kenji GM (2012) Nutritional value and consumption of Black insects (Carebara vidua Smith) from the Lake Victoria Region in Kenya. Advan Food Sci Technol 4(1):39–45Google Scholar
  14. Banjo AD, Hassan AT, Ekanyaka IJ, Dixon AGO, Jackal EN (2003) Developmental and behavioural study of spiralling whitefly (A. disperses) on three cassava (Manihot esculents Crantz). J Res Crops 5(2–3):252–260Google Scholar
  15. Banjo AD, Lawal OA, Songonuga EA (2006) The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in southwestern Nigeria. Afri J Biotech 5(3):298–301Google Scholar
  16. Bernard T, Womeni HM (2017) Entomophagy: insects as food, insect physiology and ecology, Vonnie DC. Shields, IntechOpen. Scholar
  17. Berenbaum M (1995) Bugs in the system. Adison Wesley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Braide W (2012) Perspectives in the microbiology of the leaves of three plant species as food for an edible caterpillar of an emperor moth. Inter J Res Pure Appl Microbio 2:1–6Google Scholar
  19. Braide W, Sokari TG, Hart AD (2010) Nutrition quality of an edible caterpillar of lepidopteran (Bunea alcinoe). Adv Sci Technol 4:49–53Google Scholar
  20. Bryne J (2018) MacDonald championing research into insect feed for chickens. Report from feed protein vision 2018.
  21. Camilleri MA (2017) Market segmentation, targeting and positioning. Travel marketing, tourism economics and the airline product (Chapter 4). Springer, Milan, pp 69–84Google Scholar
  22. Campbell J (1988) Mythologies of Primitive Hunters and Gatherers. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Chai J-Y, Shin E-H, Lee S-H, Rim H-J (2009) Food-borne intestinal flukes in Southeast Asia. Korean J Parasitol 47:S69–S102PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chapagain AK, Hoekstra AY (2003) Virtual water flows between nations in relation to trade in livestock and livestock products. UNESCO-IHE, DelftGoogle Scholar
  25. Cherry R (2005) Magical insects. In: Insect Mythology. Writers Club Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. DeFoliart GR (2002) The human use of insects as a food resource: a bibliographic account in progress. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  27. Dossey AT, Morales-Ramos JA, Rojas MG (eds) (2016) Insects as sustainable food ingredients: production, processing and food applications. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Ebenebe CI, Okpoko VO (2014) Edible insect in Southeastern Nigeria. Conference Paper Presented at Eating Insect Conference, Future Food Salon, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 26th–28th, 2014Google Scholar
  29. Ebenebe CI, Okpoko VO (2016) Preliminary studies on alternative substrate for multiplication of APW under captive management. J Insect Food Feed 2(3):171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ebenebe CI, Amobi MI, Udeagbala C, Ufele AN, Nweze BO (2017a) Survey of edible insect consumption in Southeastern Nigeria. J Insect Food Feed 3(4):241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ebenebe CI, Okpoko VO, Ufele AN, Amobi MI (2017b) Survivability, growth performance and nutrient composition of African Palm Weevil (Rynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius) reared on four different substrates. J BioSci Biotechnol Discov 2:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Edijala TK, Eghogbo O, Anigboro AA (2009) Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhyncophorusphoenicis and Orytcesmonocerus larvae subjected to Different Heat Treatments. Afri J Biotech 8(10):2346–2348Google Scholar
  33. Ekpo KE, Onigbinde AO (2004) Pharmaceutical potentials of Rhyncophorus phoenicis larva oil Nigera. Annal Nat Sci 5:28–36Google Scholar
  34. Ekpo KE, Onigbinde AO (2005) Nutritional potentials of the larva of Rhynchophorus. Pak J Nut 4(5):287–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Entomarket (2018) Edible Bugs as Snacks.
  36. FAO (1991) State of forest and tree genetic resources in dry zone Southern African Development Community Countries. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  37. FAO (2005) State of the World’s Forests 2005. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Scholar
  38. FAO (2008) The state of food insecurity in the world: high food prices and food security—threats and opportunities.
  39. FAO (2012) The state of food and agriculture: investing in agriculture for a better future. www.fao.orga-13028epdf
  40. FAO (2012a) FAOSTAT database collections. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations.
  41. FAO (2012b) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2012, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  42. FAO (2013) Edible insects future prospects for food and feed security.
  43. Frazer J (1998) The Golden Bough. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Fasoranti JO, Ajiboye DO (1993) Some edible insects of Kwara State, Nigeria. Amer Entom 39:113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Graczyk TK, Knight R, Tamang L (2005) Mechanical transmission of human protozoan parasites by insects. Clin Microbiol Rev 18:128–132PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hamidu JL, Salami HA, andEkanem AU (2003) Prevalence of protein-energy mal-nutrition in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Afri J Biomed 6:123–127Google Scholar
  47. Henchion M, Hayes M, Mullen A, Fenelon M, Tiwari B (2017) Future protein supply and demand: strategies and factors influencing a sustainable equilibrium. Foods 6(7):53. Scholar
  48. Ifie I, Emeruwa CH (2011) Nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of larva of Oryctesmonoceros. Agric Biol J N Am 2(1):42–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Igwe CU, Ujowundu CO, Nwaogu LA, Okwu GN (2011) Chemical analysis of an edible African termite, Macrotermesnigeriensis; a potential antidote to food security problem. Biochem Anal Biochem 1:105. Scholar
  50. Kelemu S (2016) African edible-insects: diversity and pathway to food and nutritionalsecurity.
  51. Kelemu S, Niassy S, Torto B, Fiaboe K, Affognon H, Tonnang H, Maniania NK, Ekesi S (2015) African edible insects for food and feed: inventory, diversity, commonalities and contribution to food security. J Insects Food Feed 1(2):103–119. Scholar
  52. Kinyuru J, Konyole S, Kenji G, Onyango C, Owino V, Owuor B, Estambale B, Friis H, Roos N (2012) Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya. J Food Res 1(2):148–158. Scholar
  53. Kinyuru J, Konyole S, Roos N, Onyango C, Owino V, Owuor B, Estambale B, Friis H, Aagaard-Hansen J, Kenji G (2013) Nutrient composition of four species of winged termites consumed in Western Kenya. J Food Comp Analy 30(2):120–124. Scholar
  54. Kristy G, Cherry R (2000) Insect mythology. Writers Club Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Leal CRO et al (2016) Vegetation structure determines insect herbivore diversity in seasonally dry tropical forests. J Insect Conserv 20:979–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lawal OA, Banjo AD, Junaid SO (2003) A Survey of the Ethnozoological Knowledge of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Ijebu Division of South Western Nigeria. Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge System 2:75–87Google Scholar
  57. Litton E (1993) Grasshopper consumption by humans and free range chicken reduce pesticide use in the Phillipines. Food Insect Newslett 3:6Google Scholar
  58. Malaisse F (2005) Human consumption of lepidoptera, termites, orthoptera, and ants in Africa. In: Paoletti MG (ed) Ecological implications of minilivestock: potential of insects, rodents, frogs and snails. Science Publishers, Enfield, MT, pp 175–230Google Scholar
  59. Marques Jose GW, Costa-Neto EM (1994) Insects as Folk Medicine in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on traditional medicine and folklore, Vol. 4, Scrutinies from western medicine, Newfoundland, Canada, pp. 115–119Google Scholar
  60. Mbah CE, Elekima GOV (2007) Nutrient composition of some terrestrial insects in Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria Nigeria. Sci World J 2(2):17–20Google Scholar
  61. Meludu NT, Onoja MN (2018) Determinants of edible insect consumption level in Kogi State, Nigeria. J Agri Exten 22(1):156. Scholar
  62. Molan PC (2006) Using honey in wound care. Int J Clin Aromatherap 3(2):21029Google Scholar
  63. Mutungi C, Irungu FG, Nduko J, Mutua F, Affognon H, Nakimbugwe D, Ekesi S, Fiaboe KKM (2017) Postharvest processes of edible insects in Africa: a review of processing methods, and the implications for nutrition, safety and new products development. Criti Rev Food Sci Nut. Scholar
  64. Obopile M, Seeletso TG (2013) Eat or not eat: an analysis of the status of entomophagy in Botswana. Food Sec 5:817–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Okoro FU (2000) Adoption of Rabbitry Technologies Among Farmers in Okigwe Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. In: Proceedings of 25th Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production 19th–23rd of March, 2000. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, pp 414–416Google Scholar
  66. Okweche SI, Abanyam VA (2017) Perception of rural households on the consumption of edible insects in Cross River State, Nigeria, Book of Abstract, African Association of Insect Scientist (AAIS) Conference 23rd to 26th October, 2017. Agricultural Research Centre, Wad Medina, SudanGoogle Scholar
  67. Oonincx DG, de Boer IJ (2012) Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a proteins source for humans—a life cycle assessment. PLoS One 7(12):e51145. Scholar
  68. Oyegoke OO, Akintola A, Fasoranti JO (2006) Dietary potentials of the Edible Larva of Cirina forad (Westwood) as a poultry feed. Afr J Biotechnol 5(19):1799–1802Google Scholar
  69. Okore O, Avaoja D, Nwana I (2014) Edible insects of the Niger delta area in Nigeria. J Nat Sci Res 4(5):1–9Google Scholar
  70. Omotoso OT (2006) Nutritional quality, functional properties and anti-nutrientcompositions of the larva of Cirinaforda (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). J Zhejiang Uni Sci B 7:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Oonincx DGAB, Van Itterbeeck J, Heetkamp MJW, Van den Brand H, Van Loon JJA, Van Huis A (2010) An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption. PLoS One 5(12):e14445PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Opara LU (2003) Traceability in agriculture and food supply chain: a review of basic concepts, technological implications, and future prospects. J Food Agri Enviro 1:101–106Google Scholar
  73. Osasona AI, Olaofe O (2010) Nutritional and functional properties of Cirinaforda larva from Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Afri J Food Sci 4:775–777Google Scholar
  74. Persistence Market Research (PMR) (2018) Increasing food demand to drive the consumption of edible insects. Accessed 5 Sept 2018
  75. Raheem D, Carrascosa C, Oluwole OB, Nieuwland M, Saraiva A, Millán R, Raposo A (2019) Traditional consumption of and rearing edible insects in Africa, Asia and Europe. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 59(14):2169–2188. Scholar
  76. Roulon-Doko P (1998) Chasse, cueilletteet cultures chez les Gbaya de Centrafrique. L’Harmattan, ParisGoogle Scholar
  77. Rumpold BA, Schlüter OK (2013) Potential challenges of insects as an innovative source for food and feed production. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 17:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Saliou N, Ekesi S (2017) Eating insects has long made sense in Africa. The world must catch up.
  79. Schabel HG (2010) Forest insects as food: a global review. In: Durst PB, Johnson DV, Leslie RN, Shono K (eds) Food and Agriculture Organization of UN, Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, pp 37–64Google Scholar
  80. Sidiki S (2016) Cricket protein for food security in West Africa. Accessed 5 Sept 2018
  81. Spore (2017) Honey exports take off in Africa, Spore Magazine, CTA.
  82. Silow CA (1976) Edible and other insects of mid-western Zambia; studies in Ethno-Entomology II. Antikvariat Thomas Andersson, Uppsala. 223 ppGoogle Scholar
  83. Simon A, Traynor K, Santos K, Blaser G, Bode U, Molan P (2009) Medical honey for wound care—still the ‘Latest Resort’? Evid Based Compl Alternat Med 6(2):165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Srivastava SK, Babu N, Pandey H (2009) Traditional insect bioprospecting—as human food and medicine. Indian J Trad Know 8:485–494Google Scholar
  85. Takeda J (1990) The dietary repertory of the Ngandu people of the tropical rain forest: an ecological and anthropological study of the subsistence activities and food procurement technology of a slash-and burn agriculturist in the Zaire river basin. Afri Study Monographs Supplement 11:1–75Google Scholar
  86. Van Huis A (2003) Insects as food in Sub-Saharan Africa. Insect Sci Appl 23:163–185Google Scholar
  87. Van Huis A (2013) Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annual Rev Entom 58:563–583. Scholar
  88. Van Huis A (2015) Edible insects contributing to food security? Agric and Food Security 4:20. Scholar
  89. World Food Hunger Statistics—Food Aid Foundation (2016).

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cordelia Ifeyinwa Ebenebe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oluwatosin Samuel Ibitoye
    • 2
  • Inwele Maduabuchi Amobi
    • 3
  • Valentine Obinna Okpoko
    • 4
  1. 1.Microlivestock Unit, Department of Animal Science and TechnologyNnamdi Azikiwe UniversityAwkaNigeria
  2. 2.Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Onigambari Forest ReserveIbadanNigeria
  3. 3.Federal University of KashereGombeNigeria
  4. 4.Bioconservation Unit, Department of ZoologyNnamdi Azikiwe UniversityAwkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations