There are 443 nuclear power plants (NPP) currently (2018) in operation in 30 countries for the purpose of generating electrical power. In the future old systems will be decommissioned and new ones will be planned and built. How the share of energy produced by NPPs will develop is not exactly predictable at the time of writing due to economic and political uncertainties. The production however may be slowly decreasing or constant; but it is quite possible that a gentle increase of the share of energy from NPP’s could occur in the future. At present, 55 NPPs are under construction against 166 that are now decommissioned and shut down.
We would also like to thank SKB AB (Sweden), Posiva Oy (Finland), US Department of Energy (DOE), Bundesgesellschaft für Endlagerung mbH8 and the Thuringian State Institute for the Environment and Geology for the provision of graphics and data, with which complex connections can be presented more clearly.
Special thanks are due to Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Bruno Thomauske, former Director at Research Centre Jülich; Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Gert Bernhard, former Director of the Institute for Resource Ecology (Radiochemistry) of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Broder J. Merkel, former Director of the Institute of Geology of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg. Not only did they provide support in the preparation of the German text, but they also encouraged us to undertake the project.
The authors are particularly grateful to Springer nature for encouraging this work. The basis for this presentation here is a German version  on the same topic. However, the internationality of the topic was reflected in this English language edition.
- 1.World Nuclear Power Reactors & Uranium Requirements; http://www.world-nuclear.org; July 2019.
- 2.Lersow, M.: Energy Source Uranium – Resources, Production and Adequacy; Glueckauf Mining Reporter; Verlag der Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH, Shamrockring 1, 44623 Herne; 153(3) p. 178–194; 6/2017.Google Scholar
- 3.Power Reactor Information System (PRIS); the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/WorldStatistics/OperationalReactorsByCountry.aspx.
- 4.U.S. Department of Energy - Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Annual Site, Environmental Report for 2007; DOE/WIPP-08-2225; September 2008.Google Scholar
- 5.Published by ICRP – International Commission on Radiation Protection Annals of the ICRP: ICRP Publication 103 – The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Elsevier, Amsterdam 2007, ISBN 978-0-7020-3048-2.Google Scholar
- 6.COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013: Laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom.Google Scholar
- 7.The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Department of Energy, Public law 95-604; 09. November 1978.Google Scholar
- 8.Responsibility for the future a fair and transparent procedure for the selection of a national repository site, Commission for the Storage of Highly Radioactive Waste in accordance with § 3 of the Site Selection Act, StandAG, K-Drs. 268, May 2016, German only.Google Scholar
- 9.The safety requirements governing the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste of 30.09.2010 by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU).Google Scholar
- 10.Law on Search and Selection of a Site for a Repository for Heat-Generating Radioactive Waste (Site Selection Act - StandAG); of 23 July 2013 and its development of 23 March 2017.Google Scholar
- 11.Lersow, M.: Endlagerung aller Arten von radioaktiven Abfällen und Rückständen; Springer Spectrum; ISBN 978-3-662-57821-6, 1. Aufl. 2018, 448 pages. Google Scholar
- 12.Abschlussbericht der Kommission Lagerung hochradioaktiver Abfallstoffe “Verantwortung für die Zukunft”, Deutscher Bundestag (2016); English translation: Report of the German Commission on the Storage of High Level Radioactive Waste; July 2016; https://www.gruene-bundestag.de/fileadmin/media/gruenebundestag_de/themen_az/Gorleben_PUA/Report-German-Commission-Storage-High-Level-Radioactive-Waste.pdf.
- 13.Lersow, M.; Gellermann, R (2015).; Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rückständen und radioaktiven Abfällen – Sachstand und Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung); Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin geotechnik 38 (2015), Heft 3, S. 173–192.Google Scholar
- 14.1.StörfallVwV - Erste Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zur Störfall-Verordnung; Vom 20. September 1993, (GMBl. S. 582, berichtigt GMBl. 1994 S. 820); https://www.umwelt-online.de/recht/luft/bimschg/vo/12v1v_gs.htm