Eco-certification in the Montenegrin Tourism as a Response on Climate Change

  • Jelena JanjusevicEmail author
  • Nikola Perovic
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


The adoption of eco-certification standards should provide for Montenegrin tourism industry positive effects both on supply and demand side. On the supply side, eco-certification should improve the efficiency of resource management in operations of all elements, such as energy, water, employee management, waste, cleaning as well as disinfection materials. At the same time, on-demand side, according to best practices, potential consumers are willing to pay up to 40% more for services of eco-certified units, since their principal benefit is in added value. To estimate the level of the low-carbon tourism development, its current level, and potentials for further development, the field survey was conducted in Montenegro during summer 2015, as a part of UNDP project “Towards Carbon Neutral Tourism in Montenegro,” led by the authors of this paper. The survey involved three target groups: (1) relevant central and local authorities in the area of tourism and environmental protection; (2) the travel and tourism sector businesses; and (3) visiting tourists. Travel and tourism business entities were at a certain level using mitigation measures for the reduction of CO2 emissions, but some incentives are needed and a systematic approach led by the national institutions. Relevant public institutions were aware of eco-labeling schemes, and there were some intentions for providing assistance to the travel and tourism sector in applying it in their tourism offerings. Most of the tourist business entities (89%) agree with the statement that ecotourism will be important in the future, as well as 81% of them agree with the statement that climate change has a significant impact on the tourism sector development. More than two-thirds (68.7%) of tourism business entities, did not apply any environmental standards scheme or have certified accommodation unit. However, more than half (58%) of them are willing to pay for eco-certification. Tourism industry representatives (66%) are interested to learn more about eco-certification in Montenegro, as well as to be further informed about climate change and tourism in the future (75%). For the transfer of general knowledge, this research was limited only to one country, but further research could show the potential spread of positive ideas from Montenegrin tourism to other countries, especially where UN or other global institutions have plans for implementation of the similar projects.


Sustainability Sustainable tourism Eco-certification Climate change 


  1. Alphabetical Index of 463 Ecolabels: (2018). Visited 26 October 2018
  2. Bendell, J., Font, X.: Which tourism rules? green standards and GATS. Ann. Tour. Res. 31 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black, R., Crabtree, A.: Quality Assurance and Certification in Ecotourism. p. 516. CABI, Oxfordshire (2007) ISBN: 978 184593 237 4Google Scholar
  4. Blackman, A.: Does tourism eco-certification pay? Costa rica’s blue flag program. World Dev. 58, 41 (2014). Scholar
  5. Capacci, S., Scorcu, A.E., Vici, L.: Seaside tourism and eco-labels: the economic impact of blue flags. Tour. Manage. 47, 88–96 (2015). Scholar
  6. Cerqua, A.: The signalling effect of eco-labels in modern coastal tourism. J. Sustain. Tour. 25(8), 1159–1180 (2017). Scholar
  7. Esparon, M., Gyuris, E., Stoeckl, N.: Does ECO certification deliver benefits? an empirical investigation of visitors’ perceptions of the importance of ECO certification’s attributes and of operators’ performance. J. Sustain. Tour. 22(1), 148 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. EU Ecolabel Logo on Tourist Accommodation Units: (2015). Visited 2 Aug 2015
  9. Font, X.: Environmental certification in tourism and hospitality: progress, process and prospects. Tour. Manage. 23(3) (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Giridhar, T.R.: Eco-labelling: a comparative analysis. Chem. Bus. 12(7), 95 (1998)Google Scholar
  11. Janjusevic, J.: Financing sustainable development—models and key mechanism in application to protected areas. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. (IJSER) (2016) ISSN: 2229-5518Google Scholar
  12. Jarvis, N., Weeden, C., Simcock, N.: The benefits and challenges of sustainable tourism certification: a case study of the green tourism business scheme in the west of England. J. Hosp. Tour. Manage. 17(1), 83–93 (2010). Scholar
  13. Jegdic,V.: Responsible Marketing for Sustainable Tourism. TIMS Acta 8, Novi Sad, Serbia (2014)Google Scholar
  14. Karlsson, L., Dolnicar, S.: Does eco certification sell tourism services? evidence from a quasi-experimental observation study in iceland. J. Sustain. Tour. 24(5), 694–714 (2016). Scholar
  15. Lebe, S.S., Vrečko, I.: Eco-labels and schemes: a requisitely holistic proof of tourism’s social responsibility?: social responsibility certificates in tourism. Syst. Res. Behav. Sci. 32(2), 247–255 (2015). Scholar
  16. Lee, K., Carter, S.: Global Marketing Management. Oxford, United Kingdom (2012)Google Scholar
  17. Leroux, E., Pupion, P.: Factors of adoption of eco-labelling in hotel industry. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 129, 194–209 (2018). Scholar
  18. Lucrezi, S., Van der Merwe, P.: Managing Beaches and Beachgoers: Lessons From and for the Blue Flag Award. TREES e Tourism Research in Economic Environs and Society, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa (2014)Google Scholar
  19. Perovic, N.: Management in Tourism. Millieucontact Macedonia (2013)Google Scholar
  20. Perovic, N.: Sustainable Tourism and Eco-Certification, Clean and Green Environment: Creating Resilient World for all. Adelaide, Australia (2015)Google Scholar
  21. Pugh, M., Fletcher, R.: Green international wine marketing. Australas. Mark. J. 10(3) (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rakita, B.: International Business and Management. Belgrade, Serbia (2005)Google Scholar
  23. Sipic, T.: Eco-labelling of marine recreation services: the case of blue flag price premium in croatia. J. Ecotour. 16(1), 1–23 (2017). Scholar
  24. UNDP: Survey on Low Carbon Tourism in Montenegro, COBISS.CG-ID 30781712, Podgorica (2016) ISSN 2337-0971Google Scholar
  25. UNDP: Towards carbon neutral tourism in montenegro eco certification for tourism accommodation (2016)Google Scholar
  26. UNWTO and UNEP: Making tourism more sustainable (2011)Google Scholar
  27. UNEP: Report on tourism in the green economy (2012).
  28. UNEP: Towards a green economy: pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication—a synthesis for policy makers (2011). Visited 2 Aug 2015
  29. Weaver, D., Lawton, L.: Tourism Management, 4th edn, Wiley, Australia (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heriot Watt UniversityDubaiUAE
  2. 2.Higher College of TechnologyDubaiUAE

Personalised recommendations