Proper Use of Concord in the Written English Essays of Diploma Students as a Means of Sustainable Development in Nigeria

  • Sani JafarEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the concord errors committed by part-time Diploma student of Jigawa State College of Education, Gumel and Jigawa State Polytechnic. It examined the error types, frequency of occurrence, and provide strategies and recommendations to minimize their reoccurrence. One essay test and one structural test were administered, and the identified errors analyzed. The concord errors by the sampled students were obtained. For data analysis, the percentage was used. A descriptive research design was also used. The study area has a population of 265 for 2016/2017. A sample size of 155 (Diploma 1 students) was used for the study. Two researcher-designed instruments were modified and used from J.S. Digga (1990); Concord Error Structural Test (CEST) and Concord Error Written Test (CEWT). The data were presented in tables and simple percentages accompanied by explanatory and descriptive analyses based on which conclusions were drawn. Students tended to avoid the use of passive voice and phrasal verbs. The frequencies of errors committed have a direct negative effect on the academic achievements of students. The study concludes that the remedial measures and strategies could be used to improve the situation were recommended.


Error analysis Concord Use of concord Sustainable development 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sule Lamido UniversityKafin HausaNigeria

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