Advertisement

Investigating the Function of DM “Like” in Authentic Discourse and the Importance of Incorporating It in ESL Curriculum

  • Heba Ibrahim ElbahwashyEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)

Abstract

In daily communication, the lexical items “like”, “well”, and “you know” can serve as discourse markers (DMs). Research on DMs has revealed a various functions as different types of particles, such as the conjunctional use of “like” and the semantically unidentified phrase “you know”. However, there are no formal indications in the ESL grammar books that address the function of the DM “like” as a conjunction. In their book How English works: A grammatical practice book with answers, Swan and Walter define “like” as a preposition that comes before nouns or pronoun (Swan 1997). Some given examples are as follows: He runs like the wind. She looks like me. However, they refer to the conjunctional function of “like” as informal and cannot occur in writing. This paper investigates the function of the discourse marker “like” in actual discourse and the possible criteria that determine the status of “like” in the present day. Additionally, the paper examines the prescribed grammatical function of “like” in ELS grammar books. Finally, the paper suggests specific pedagogical recommendations that could be considered in a sustained ESL field of learning and teaching.

Keywords

Discourse markers Lexicon ESL Language learning Sustainable education 

References

  1. Aijmer, K., Simon-Vandenbergen, A.M.: Pragmatic markers. In: Zienkowski, J., Ostman, J., Verschueren, J. (eds.) Discursive Pragmatics, pp. 223–247. John Benjamins, Philadelphia (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, G.: The role of pragmatic marker LIKE in utterance interpretation. In: Andersen, G., Torsten, F. (eds.) Pragmatic Markers and Propositional Attitude, pp. 17–38. John Benjamins, Amsterdam (2000)Google Scholar
  3. Azar, B.: Fundamentals of English grammar, The USA. Prentice Hall Regents (1992)Google Scholar
  4. Fraser, B.: An approach to discourse markers. J. Pragmat. 14, 383–395 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fuller, J.M.: Use of the discourse marker ‘like’ in interviews. J. Sociolinguist. 7(3), 365–377 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fuller, J.M.: The influence of speaker roles on discourse marker use. J. Pragmat. 35, 23–45 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fung, L., Carter, R.: Discourse markers and spoken English: native and learner use in pedagogic settings. Appl. Linguist. 28(3), 410–439 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Greenbaum, S.: An Introduction to English Grammar. Longman, England (1991)Google Scholar
  9. Innajih, A.: The effect of conjunctive types on the English language reading comprehension of Libyan university students (2007)Google Scholar
  10. Jucker, A., Smith, S.: And people just you know like ‘wow’: discourse markers as negotiating strategies. In: Jucker, A., Ziv, Y. (Eds.) Discourse Markers: Descriptions and Theory, pp. 171–202. John Benjamins, Philadelphia (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lease, M., Johnson, M.: Early deletion of fillers in processing conversational speech. In: Proceedings of HLT-NAACL (Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association of Computational Linguistics), pp. 73–76. Short Papers, New York, NY (2006)Google Scholar
  12. Mu’ller, S.: Discourse Markers in Native and Non-Native English Discourse. John Benjamins, Philadelphia (2005)Google Scholar
  13. Polat, B.: Investigating acquisition of discourse markers through a developmental learner corpus. J. Pragmat. 43(15), 3745–3756 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Popescu-Belis, A., Zufferey, S.: Automatic identification of discourse markers in dialogues: an in-depth study of like and well. Comput. Speech Lang. 25, 499–518 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Reichman, R.: Getting Computers to Talk Like You and Me: Discourse Context, Cocus, and Semantics. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1985)Google Scholar
  16. Samuel, K.: Discourse learning: an investigation of dialogue act tagging using transformation-based learning. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Delaware, Department of Computer and Information Sciences (1999)Google Scholar
  17. Schiffrin, D.: Discourse Markers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schourup, L.C.: Discourse markers. Lingua. 107, 227–265 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Siegel, M.: Like: the discourse particle and semantics. J. Semant. 19, 35–71 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Swan, M., Walter, C.: How English works: A Grammatical Practice Book with Answers (1997)Google Scholar
  21. Trillo, J.: The pragmatic fossilization of discourse markers in non-native speakers of english. J. Pragmat. 34, 769–784 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wierzbicka, A.: Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: The Semantics of Human Interaction. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Education, American University in the EmiratesDubaiUnited Arab Emirates

Personalised recommendations