Integrating Structural and Non-structural Flood Management Measures for Greater Effectiveness in Flood Loss Reduction in the Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia

  • Ngai Weng ChanEmail author
  • Aminuddin Ab Ghani
  • Narimah Samat
  • Nik Norma Nik Hasan
  • Mou Leong Tan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 53)


The state of Kelantan in Malaysia is a flood-prone state exposed to seasonal Monsoon rains that bring seasonal floods resulting in significantly losses. Flood management in the state is modelled after the country’s predominant government-centric top-down approach focused on flood-control technologies via structural measures such as multi-purpose dams, levees, embankments, tidal gates, diversion channels and others. These structural measures do not engage the public who fail to understand the measures leading to lack of confidence, misunderstanding and mistrust. This results in ineffectiveness of the measures leading to greater flood losses. In contrast, local communities are familiar with non-structural measures which they have long used to adapt to floods. These measures are also relatively simple, cost-effective and easily implementable over a short period of time. Both measures, however, must engage the public/victims in all phases of the flood disaster cycle. Balancing both types of flood management measures is the key to more effective management. A combination of structural and non-structural measures is the way forward for Kelantan State as it ensures that government structural measures are effectively supported by public-engaged non-structural measures.


Structural flood management Non-structural flood management Flood warning Public engagement Flood loss reduction 



The authors would like to acknowledge the FRGS Research Grant 203.PHUMANITI.6711693 which supported the research that culminated in the publication of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ngai Weng Chan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aminuddin Ab Ghani
    • 2
  • Narimah Samat
    • 1
  • Nik Norma Nik Hasan
    • 3
  • Mou Leong Tan
    • 1
  1. 1.Geography Section, School of HumanitiesUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)PenangMalaysia
  2. 2.River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre, Universiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  3. 3.School of CommunicationsUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)PenangMalaysia

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