Oxidation of Deep Well Saline Groundwater Generates the Precipitation of Ferrous Sulfide (FeS)

  • M. F. Mohd Akhir
  • N. A. SaadEmail author
  • Nor Azazi Zakaria
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 53)


Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can be traced once the groundwater is pumped out from a deep well which is located <10 km from the costal line. The groundwater contains 5.1 ± 0.1 ppt of salinity which is classified as saline groundwater. The initial color of the groundwater is green yellowish. After 40 s exposed to the oxygen, its colour suddenly turned to black and become sludgy. Afterwards, the black colour turns to partially cloudy after 8 h being exposed to the oxygen, subsequently, the H2S gas vanishes along with the disappearance of the black colour. Hence, from this reaction, this study aims to investigate the cause of the black precipitate formation which comes from the oxidation of the deep well saline groundwater. Based on the XRD and DSC results, the black precipitate is a troilite mineral (FeS). The elements that contained in the groundwater mostly originated from the seawater. The fast precipitation is caused by the Cl content which is increasing the oxidation rate. The increase of Fe2+ is caused by the weathering process during the travel of the groundwater through the aquifer. Meanwhile, \( {\text{SO}}_{4}^{2 - } \) is decomposed by microorganism to produce S2− and this causes the reaction of Fe2+ and S2− to form FeS despite in saline condition.


Deep well Saline groundwater Seawater Oxidation FeS 



This research was fully funded by HICOE and short-term grant. My deepest appreciation to Director of River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Center (REDAC), Civil Engineering School and Material and Mineral Resources Engineering School who were giving opportunities to use their equipment without any objection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. F. Mohd Akhir
    • 1
  • N. A. Saad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nor Azazi Zakaria
    • 1
  1. 1.River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering CampusNibong TebalMalaysia

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