The Effect of Short-Term Exposure to Natural Outdoor Environment on the Strength of Tempered Glass Panel

  • Mustafasanie M. YussofEmail author
  • Shau Hui Lim
  • Mohd Khairul Kamarudin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 53)


Glass that used for architectural and structural purpose will undergo long term exposure to the natural outdoor environment. Exposure to outdoor weather such as temperature, humidity, UV-radiation, pH, etc. may cause deterioration of glass strength. This paper aims to study the effect of short-term exposures to natural outdoor environment on the strength of glass panel. Four sets of tempered glass samples were prepared for direct exposure to the outdoor environment. The samples were exposed to the outdoor environment for 40-, 80- and 120-days. A total of two tests namely microscopic observation on glass surface and four-point bending test on glass panel were conducted. Based on microscopic observation, the intensity of surface defects such as surface scratches, bubbles, and dust were increased for longer period of outdoor exposure. The bending and residual strengths of the glass panel reduced as the duration of the outdoor exposure was increased. The tempered glass material tends to undergo deterioration in strength by weathering process.


Tempered glass Four-point bending test Natural outdoor exposure Bending strength Residual stress Surface defects 



This work was funded by the Universiti Sains Malaysia under Short Term Grant 304/PAWAM/60313013. The authors would like to thank the laboratory technician Mr. Abdullah Md. Nanyan for technical contributions.


  1. 1.
    Afolabi B, Norville HS, Morse SM (2016) Experimental study of weathered tempered glass plates from the Northeastern United States. J Arch Eng 22(3):04016010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker TC, Preston FW (1946) The effect of water on the strength of glass. J Appl Phys 17(3):179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    BS EN 1288-3 (2000) Glass in building—determination of the bending strength of glass. Part 3: test with the specimen supported at two pointsGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carmona N, Kowal A, Rincon JM, Villegas MA (2010) AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses. Mater Chem Phys 119(1–2):254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Datsiou KC, Overend M (2017) The strength of aged glass. Glass Struct Eng 2(2):105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Macrelli G (2017) Chemical strengthening of glass by ion-exchangeGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maloney FJ (1968) Glass in the modern world, a study in materials developmentGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Min’ko NI, Nartsev VM (2013) Factors affecting the strength of the glass. Middle East J Sci Res 18(11):1616–1624Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Papadopoulos N, Drosou CA (2012) Influence of weather conditions on glass. J Univ Chem Technol Metall 47(4)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schneider J, Schula S, Weinhold WP (2012) Characterisation of the scratch resistance of annealed and tempered architectural glass. Thin Solid Films 520(12):4190–4198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shelby JE (2007) Introduction to glass science and technology. Royal Society of ChemistryGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shokrieh MM, Bayat A (2007) Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mechanical properties of glass/polyester composites. J Compos Mater 41(20):2443–2455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weissmann R (1997) Fundamental properties of float glass surfaces. In: Glass processing days, 13–15 Sept 1997Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    White RL (2007) Glass as a structural materialGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ye R, Chang M, Pan CS, Chiang CA, Gabayno JL (2018) High-resolution optical inspection system for fast detection and classification of surface defects. Int J Optomechatronics 12(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustafasanie M. Yussof
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shau Hui Lim
    • 1
  • Mohd Khairul Kamarudin
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MARAShah AlamMalaysia

Personalised recommendations