Numerical Simulation of the Cascade Aerator in Removing Iron and Manganese

  • Rhahimi Jamil
  • M. A. Z. Mohd Remy RozainyEmail author
  • Mohd Nordin Adlan
  • Mohamad Aizat Abas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 53)


The cascade container is also used as an effective method, low cost for treating groundwater. In this study, the Boltzmann Lattice Method (LBM) is used to investigate ventilation processes in the newly designed cascade aerator model. For new cascade containers, different dimensions have been used to determine the best designs that can reduce the concentration of iron and manganese. Two LBM simulations, and two sets of experiments were performed, and the velocity and pressure velocities were calculated. Based on the findings, it is shown that LBM’s initial data, and experimental data corresponds to each other in terms of velocity distribution. In addition, it is also found that water velocity has a significant effect on the effectiveness of ventilation. The cavitation destroys the overflow structure of the surge, and the oxidation process reduces iron and manganese in water by increasing dissolved oxygen. The dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 0.8 to 1.4 mg/L for Model A, and from 0.7 to 1.2 mg/L for Model B. The velocity increases due to angular changes along the main flow direction of the water, and the highest velocity is at point D tin. The results of simulation and experiments for Set A and Set B indicate good agreement in the velocity obtained. The percentage of errors between simulation results achieved is less than 11%. It is clear that the LBM simulation can determine the speed of water accurately on jump accuracy. From this study, it is shown that the velocity increases with the main flow in the flow. On the contrary, pressure decreases with increased water speed. Possible cavitation occurs when the pressure is almost negative, or negative; then the velocity will be higher. Thus, the velocity affects the efficiency of the aeration and the dissipation of tin energy.


Cascade aerator Lattice boltzmann method Experiment Velocity 



The study conducted is partly funded by Universiti Sains Malaysia under Bridging Grant (PAWAM6316315)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhahimi Jamil
    • 1
  • M. A. Z. Mohd Remy Rozainy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohd Nordin Adlan
    • 1
  • Mohamad Aizat Abas
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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