The Influence of Extensive Green Roofs on Roof Thermal Performance in Batu Pahat Climate

  • Mohd Norfekry Md. Yacob
  • Hartini KasminEmail author
  • Mohd. Khairul Adam Mohd. Kori
  • Wan Afnizan Wan Mohamed
  • Siti Nazahiyah Rahmat
  • Mohd. Shalahuddin Adnan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 53)


Climate change has increased global temperatures. When air temperature rises, it affects the condition of urban areas and creates discomfort among inhabitants of buildings. A potential sustainable approach to overcome the global warming issue is to implement green roof technology. This study aims to determine the effect of green roofs on roof thermal performance and to identify the best plant species which has the potential to lower temperatures. This study also determined the U-value, R-value, k-value and heat-flux parameters that constitute the thermal behaviour of green roofs. Three identical small-scale roof houses were constructed with one non-vegetated roof house as a control while the other two vegetated roof houses were planted with Portulaca G. and Alternanthera P., respectively. Surface roof temperatures were collected from both inside and outside the roof of each house. Results show that the average differences in temperature inside the building between the control roof and the green roof were 0.02 °C and 0.22 °C for Portulaca G. and Alternanthera P., respectively. Meanwhile, the average differences in temperature on the control roof and the green roof were 1.12 °C and 2.84 °C for Portulaca G. and Alternanthera P., respectively. The heat flux value of Alternanthera P. roof is 3.15 w/m2 better than Portulaca G. roof at 7.72 w/m2. This concludes that the roof with Alternanthera P. reduces heat that travels through the roof layer better than Portulaca G.


Green roof Roof thermal behaviour Climate changes Thermal conductivity 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by Universiti Tun Hussein Onn under the Postgraduate Incentive Research Grant (GIPS—1351) and the Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS—E052) which made this study possible. The authors would also like to thank the Research Centre for Soft Soil (RECESS), UTHM, for the opportunity to use its laboratory sites for the green roof test beds.


  1. 1.
    ASHRAE (1967) Handbook of fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers Inc., AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asmat I (2010) Potted plants on flat roof as a strategy to reduce indoor temperature in Malaysian climate. Am J Eng Appl Sci 3(3):534–539 (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barozzi B, Bellazzi A, Pollastro MC (2016) The energy impact in buildings of vegetative solutions for extensive green roofs in temperate climates. Building: Article, MDPICrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bahrami M (2019) Steady conduction heat transfer. Online notes. Simon Fraser University, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Becker D, Wang D (2011) Green roof heat transfer and thermal performance analysis. In: Civil and environmental engineering. Carnegie Mellon UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Binabid, J. (2010). Vertical garden: the study of vertical gardens and their benefits for low-rise buildings in moderate and hot climates. M.B.S. University of Southern CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coma J, Pérez G, Cabeza LF (2018) Green roofs to enhance the thermal performance of buildings and outdoor comfort (Chap. 3.2). In: Nature based strategies for urban and building sustainability, pp 109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cui N, Feng CC, Wang D, Li J, Guo L (2018) The effects of rapid urbanization on forest landscape connectivity in Zhuhai City, China. Sustainability: Article, MDPICrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Divsalar R (2010) Building problems in hot climates. Master thesis of science in architecture, University of Eastern Mediterranean, North CyprusGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Figueroa M (2008) Green roof performance in Los Angeles, California. M.B.S. University of Southern CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gaffin SR, Khanbilvardi R, Rosenzweig C (2009) Development of a green roof environmental monitoring and meteorological network in New York City. Sens Commun 9:2647–2660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gargari C, Bibbiani C, Fantozzi F, Campiotti CA (2016) Environmental impact of green roofing: the contribute of a green roof to the sustainable use of natural resources in a life cycle approach. Agricult Agricult Sci Procedia 8:646–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hassall DNH, Richards FR (1977) Reflective insulation and the control of thermal environments. St. Regis—ACIGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Issa RJ, Leitch K, Chang B (2015) Experimental heat transfer study on green roofs in a semi-arid climate during summer. J Constr Eng 2015Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jim CY (2012) Effect of vegetation biomass structure on thermal performance of tropical green roof. Landsc Ecol Eng 8:173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kasmin H, Yusoff NA, Samsudin MH, Atan N, Kassim R, Ahmad H, Sayuti Z, Abdullah F (2015) Preliminary overview on thermal performance of green roof. Appl Mech Mater 773:1047–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liang YQ, Li JW, Li J, Valimaki SK (2008) Impact of urbanization on plant diversity: a case study in built-up areas of Beijing. For Stud China 10(3):179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McMullan R (1992) Environmental science in building, 3rd edn. The Macmillan Press Ltd., LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morau D, Libelle T, Garde F (2012) Performance evaluation of green roof for thermal protection of buildings in reunion Island. Energy Procedia 14:1008–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mohd Zahudi Z, Adnan MS, Amat NF, Erfen Y, Che Ali N (2015) Climate change impacts on rainfall distribution at Teluk Intan catchment. Appl Mech Mater 773–774:1296–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    NASA (2019) The effects of climate change. In: Global climate change: vital signs of the planetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rahmat SN, Jayasuriya N, Adnan MS, Bhuiyan M (2016) Analysis of spatio-temporal trends using standardised precipitation index (SPI). ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 11(4)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sailor DJ (2008) @@Thermal property measurements for ecoroof soils common in the Western U.S. Energy Build 40:1246–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sandoval V, Suárez F, Vera S, Pinto C, Victorero F, Bonilla C, Gironás J, Bustamante W, Rojas V, Pastén P (2015) Impact of the properties of a green roof substrate on its hydraulic and thermal behavior. In: 6th international building physics conference, IBPC 2015. Energy Procedia 78:1177–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schumann L (2007) Ecologically inspired design of green roof retrofit. M.S University of Maryland, College ParkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Spala A, Bagiorgas HS, Assimakopoulos MN, Kalavrouziotis J, Matthopoulos D, Mihalakakou G (2008) On the green roof system. Selection, state of the art and energy potential investigation of a system installed in an office building in Athens, Greece. Renew Energy 33(1):173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sun Q, Miao C, Hanel M, Alistair GLB, Duan Q, Ji D, Li H (2019) Global heat stress on health, wildfires, and agricultural crops under different levels of climate warming. Environ Int 128:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tobassom S (2014) Thermal impacts of vertical greenery systems. Environ Clim Technol. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yang J, Mohan Kumar D, Pyrgou A, Chong A, Santamouris M, Kolokotsa D, Lee SE (2018) Green and cool roofs’ urban heat island mitigation potential in tropical climate. Sol Energy 173:597–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yannas S, Erell E, Molina JL (2006) Roof cooling techniques a design handbook. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Norfekry Md. Yacob
    • 1
  • Hartini Kasmin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohd. Khairul Adam Mohd. Kori
    • 1
  • Wan Afnizan Wan Mohamed
    • 1
  • Siti Nazahiyah Rahmat
    • 1
  • Mohd. Shalahuddin Adnan
    • 1
  1. 1.Micropollutant Research Centre, Jabatan Kejuruteraan Air Dan Persekitaran, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Air dan PersekitaranUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn MalaysiaParit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia

Personalised recommendations