Advertisement

Growth Patterns at Different Sites and Forest Management Systems

  • Carolina Braga BrandaniEmail author
  • Felipe Martini Santos
  • Ivanka Rosado de Oliveira
  • Bruno Bordon
  • Maurel Bheling
  • Eduardo Vinicius Silva
  • José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves
Chapter
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

The introduction of N2-fixing species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations is a strategy where eucalypt growth is limited by N availability. The objective of this chapter is to gather some results obtained in the last decade regarding above- and belowground mixed forests of Eucalyptus and Acacia mangium growth in Brazil and to give insights into the main drivers influencing their development, as well as soil and climatic conditions, silvicultural management, and species interactions. Elevated temperature and humidity are ideal for the aboveground biomass production. Nitrogen fixed by A. mangium contributes to the superior performance of the mixed-stand rotation when compared to eucalypt monoculture, avoiding the use of mineral N. Arrangements and spacing (design of planting) between trees and interactions as competition and facilitation processes have strong influence on the development. Canopy stratification may increase light interception and make them more productive than monocultures. They may also exploit soil site resources more completely through the development of fine root systems. Mixed plantations can also result in long-term sustainability, such as increasing soil C sequestration and soil N concentrations, favoring the dynamics of nutrient cycling, and protecting against pests and diseases, as well as diversifying of timber and non-timber forest products.

Keywords

Eucalyptus spp. Acacia spp. Mixed plantations N2-fixing species Species interactions 

References

  1. Almeida JCR, Laclau JP, Gonçalves JLM, Ranger J, Saint-André L (2010) A positive growth response to NaCl applications in Eucalyptus plantations established on K-deficient soils. For Ecol Manag 259:786–1795.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.08.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atipanumpai L (1989) Acacia mangium: studies on the genetic variation in ecological and physiological characteristics of fast-growing plantation tree species. Acta for Fenn 206:1–99.  https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin MT, Brewbaker JL, Wheeler R, Fownes JH (1997) Short- rotation biomass trial of mixed and pure stands of nitrogen-fixing trees and Eucalyptus grandis. Aust for 60:161–168.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00049158.1997.10676138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachega LR, Bouillet JP, Piccolo MC, Saint-Andre L, Bouvet JM, Nouvellon Y, Gonçalves JLM, Robin A, Laclau J-P (2016) Decomposition of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium leaves and fine roots in tropical conditions did not meet the Home Field Advantage hypothesis. For Ecol Manag 359:33–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.09.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balieiro FC, Franco AA, Fontes RLF, Dias LE, Campello EF, Faria SM (2002) Accumulation and distribution of aboveground biomass and nutrients under pure and mixed stands of Pseudosamanea guachapele Dugand and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. J Plant Nutr 24/25:2639–2654.  https://doi.org/10.1081/PLN-120015528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balieiro FC, Franco AA, Pereira MG, Campello EFC, Dias LE, Faria SM, Alves BJR (2004) Contribution of litter and nitrogen to soil under Pseudosamanea guachapele and Eucalyptus grandis plantations. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 39:597–601.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2004000600012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balieiro FC, Pereira MG, Alves BJR, Resende AS, Franco AA (2008) Soil carbon and nitrogen in pasture soil reforested with Eucalyptus and Pseudosamanea guachapele. Rev Bras Cienc Solo 32:1253–1260.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832008000300033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauhus J, Khanna PK, Menden N (2000) Aboveground and belowground interactions in mixed plantations of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii. Can J For Res 30:1886–1894.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-30-12-1886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertness M, Callaway RM (1994) Positive interactions in communities. Trends Ecol Evol 9:191–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(94)90088-4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Binkley D, Senock R, Bird S, Cole TG (2003) Twenty years of stand development in pure and mixed stands of Eucalyptus saligna and nitrogen-fixing Falcataria moluccana. For Ecol Manag 182:93–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00028-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bouillet JP, Laclau JP, Gonçalves JLM, Moreira MZ, Trivelin PCO, Jourdan C, Silva EV, Piccolo MC, Tsai SM, Galiana A (2008) Mixed-species plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil. 2: Nitrogen accumulation in the stands and biological N2 fixation. For Ecol Manag 255:3918–3930.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouillet J-P, Laclau J-P, Gonçalves JLM, Voigtlaender M, Gava J, Leite FP, Hakamada R, Mareschal L, Mabiala A, Tardy F, Levillain J, Deleporte P, Epron D, Nouvellon Y (2013) Eucalyptus and Acacia tree growth over entire rotation in single- and mixed-species plantations across five sites in Brazil and Congo. For Ecol Manag 301:89–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.09.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyden S, Binkley D, Senock R (2005) Competition and facilitation between Eucalyptus and nitrogen-fixing Falcataria in relation to soil fertility. Ecology 86:992–1001.  https://doi.org/10.1890/04-0430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Callaway RW (2002) The detection of neighbors by plants. Trends Ecol Evol 17:104–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02438-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaer GM, Tótola MR (2007) Impact of organic residue management on soil quality indicators during replanting of eucalypt stands. Rev Bras Ciênc Solo 31:1381–1396.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832007000600016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coelho SRF, Gonçalves JLM, Laclau JP, Mello SLM, Moreira RM, Silva EV (2007) Crescimento, nutrição e fixação biológica de nitrogênio em plantios mistos de eucalipto e leguminosas arbóreas. Pesquisa Agropec. Bras. 42:759–768.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2007000600001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corbeels M, McMurtrie RE, Pepper DA, Mendham DS, Grovet TS, O’Connell AM (2005) Long-term changes in productivity of eucalypt plantations under different harvest residue and nitrogen management practices: a modelling analysis. For Ecol Manag 217:1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.05.057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Epron D, Nouvellon Y, Mareschal L, Moreira RM, Koutika LS, Geneste B, Delgado-Rojas JS, Laclau J-P, Sola G, Gonçalves JLM, Bouillet J-P (2013) Partitioning of net primary production in eucalypt and acacia stands and in mixed-species plantations: two case-studies in contrasting tropical environments. For Ecol Manag 301:102–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.10.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Firn J, Erskine PD, Lamb D (2007) Woody species diversity influences productivity and soil nutrient availability in tropical plantations. Oecologia 154:521–533.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-007-0850-8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Forrester DI, Bauhus J, Khanna PK (2004) Growth dynamics in a mixed-species plantation of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii. For Ecol Manag 193:81–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.01.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Forrester DI, Bauhus J, Cowie AL (2005) On the success and failure of mixed-species tree plantations: Lessons learned from a model system of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii. For Ecol Manag 209:147–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.01.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forrester DI, Bauhus J, Cowie AL, Vanclay JK (2006) Mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees: A review. For Ecol Manag 233:211–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forrester DI (2014) The spatial and temporal dynamics of species interactions in mixed-species forests: from pattern to process. For Ecol Manag 312:282–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Germon A, Guerrini I, Bordron B, Bouillet J-P, Nouvellon Y, Gonçalves J, Moreira R, Jourdan C, Laclau J-P (2018) Consequence of mixing Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees on soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 17 m in a tropical planted forest. Plant Soil 424:203–220.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3428-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gonçalves JLM, Stape JL, Benedetti V, Fessel VAG, Gava JL (2000) Reflexos do cultivo mínimo e intensivo do solo em sua fertilidade e nutrição das árvores. In: Gonçalves JLM, Benedetti V (eds) Nutrição e fertilização florestal. IPEF, Piracicaba, pp 1–57Google Scholar
  26. Gonçalves JLM, Stape JL, Wichert MCP, Gava JL (2002) Manejo de resíduos vegetais e preparo de solo. In: Gonçalves JLM, Stape JL (eds) Conservação e cultivo de solos para plantações florestais. IPEF, Piracicaba, pp 131–204Google Scholar
  27. Gonçalves JLM, Stape JL, Laclau J-P, Smethurst P, Gava JL (2004) Silvicultural effects on the productivity and wood quality of eucalypt plantations. For Ecol Manag 193:45–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.01.022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonçalves JLM, Stape JL, Laclau J-P, Bouillet J-P, Ranger J (2008) Assessing the effects of early silvicultural management on long-term site productivity of fast-growing eucalypt plantations: the Brazilian experience. South For 70:105–118.  https://doi.org/10.2989/SOUTH.FOR.2008.70.2.6.534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gonçalves JLM (2011) Fertilização de plantação de eucalipto. In: Encontro Brasileiro de Silvicultura, 2. Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Proceedings… Piracicaba: PTSM/IPEF/ESALQ/FUPEF, pp 85–113Google Scholar
  30. Gonçalves JLM, Alvares CA, Higa AR, Silva LD, Alfenas AC, Stahl J, Ferraz SFB, Lima WP, Brancalion PHS, Hubner A, Bouillet J-P, Laclau J-P, Nouvellon Y, Epron D (2013) Integrating genetic and silvicultural strategies to minimize abiotic and biotic constraints in Brazilian eucalypt plantations. For Ecol Manag 301:6–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.12.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gonçalves JLM, Duque SL, Behling M, Alvares CA (2014) Management of industrial forest plantations. In: Borges JG, Diaz-Balteiro L, McDill ME, Rodriguez LCE (eds) Managing forest ecosystems, 1st edn. Springer Netherlands, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  32. Hierro JL, Callaway RM (2003) Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion. Plant Soil 256:29–39.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1083245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hunt MA, Battaglia M, Davidson NJ, Unwin GL (2006) Competition between plantation Eucalyptus nitens and Acacia dealbata weeds in northeastern Tasmania. For Ecol Manag 233:260–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kelty MJ (2006) The role of species mixtures in plantation forestry. For Ecol Manag 233:195–204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koutika L-S, Tchichelle SV, Mareschal L, Epron D (2017) Nitrogen dynamics in a nutrient-poor soil under mixed-species plantations of eucalypts and acacias. Soil Biol Biochem 108:84–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.01.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krisnawati H, Kallio M, Kanninen M (2011) Acacia mangium Willd.: ecology, silviculture and productivity. CIFOR, BogorGoogle Scholar
  37. Kueffer C, Schumacher E, Fleischmann K, Edwards PJ, Dietz H (2007) Strong below-ground competition shapes tree regeneration in invasive Cinnamomum verum forests. J Ecol 95:273–282.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01213.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laclau J-P, Ranger J, Nzila JD, Bouillet J-P, Deleporte P (2003) Nutrient cycling in a clonal stand of Eucalyptus and an adjacent savanna ecosystem in Congo. 2. Chemical composition of soil solutions. For Ecol Manag 180:527–544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00645-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Laclau J-P, Bouillet JP, Gonçalves JLM, Silva EV, Jourdan C, Cunha MCS, Moreira MR, Saint-André L, Maquère V, Nouvellon Y, Ranger J (2008) Mixed-species plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil: 1. Growth dynamics and aboveground net primary production. For Ecol Manag 255:3905–3917.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Laclau J-P, Ranger J, Gonçalves JLM, Maquere V, Krusche AV, M’bou AT, Nouvellon Y, Saint-Andre L, Bouillet J-P, Piccolo MC, Deleporte P (2010) Biogeochemical cycles of nutrients in tropical eucalypt plantations. Main features shown by intensive monitoring in Congo and Brazil. For Ecol Manag 259:1771–1785.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.06.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Laclau JP, Nouvellon Y, Reine C, Gonçalves JLM, Krushe AV, Jourdan C, Le Maire G, Bouillet JP (2013) Mixing Eucalyptus and Acacia trees leads to fine root over-yielding and vertical segregation between species. Oecologia 172:903–913.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2526-2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Le Maire G, Nouvellon Y, Christina M, Ponzoni F, Gonçalves JLM, Bouillet J-P, Laclau J-P (2013) Tree and stand light use efficiencies over a full rotation of single- and mixed-species Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. For Ecol Manag 288:31–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leuschner C, Hertel D, Coners H, Büttner V (2001) Root competition between beech and oak: a hypothesis. Oecologia 126:276–284.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420000507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lima WP, Laprovitera R, Ferraz SFB, Rodrigues CB, Silva MM (2012) Forest plantations and water consumption: a strategy for hydrosolidarity. Int J Forest Res 2012:8p.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/908465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Little KM, Schumann AW, Noble AD (2002) Performance of a Eucalyptus grandis × E. camaldulensis hybrid clone as influenced by a cowpea cover crop. For Ecol Manag 168:43–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00728-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Loreau M, Hector A (2001) Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments. Nature 412:72–76.  https://doi.org/10.1038/35083573CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Maquère V, Laclau J-P, Gonçalves JLM, Krushe AV, Piccolo MC, Gine MF, Ranger J (2005) Influence of fertilizer inputs on soil solution chemistry in eucalypt plantations established on Brazilian sandy soils. In: Proceedings of the workshop on management of tropical sandy soils for sustainable agriculture: a holistic approach for sustainable development of problem soils in the tropics. International Union of Soil Science, Khon Kaen, Khon Kaen, pp 466–471Google Scholar
  48. Medhurst J, Beadle C, Neilsen W (2001) Early-age and later-age thinning affects growth, dominance, and intraspecific competition in Eucalyptus nitens plantations. Can J For Res 31(2):187–197.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-31-2-187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nambiar EKS, Kallio MH (2008) Increasing and sustaining productivity in tropical forest plantations: making a difference through cooperative research partnership. In: Nambiar EKS (ed) Site management and productivity in tropical plantation forests: workshop proceedings, 22–26 November 2004, Piracicaba, Brazil, and 6–9 November, Bogor, Indonesia. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, pp 205–227Google Scholar
  50. Nouvellon Y, Ranger J, Bouillet J-P (2012) Introducing Acacia mangium trees in Eucalyptus grandis plantations: consequences for soil organic matter stocks and nitrogen mineralization. Plant Soil 352:99–111.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0982-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paula RR, Bouillet J-P, Trivelin PCO, Zeller B, Gonçalves JLM, Nouvellon Y, Bouvet JM, Plassard C, Laclau J-P (2015) Evidence of short-term belowground transfer of nitrogen from Acacia mangium to Eucalyptus grandis trees in a tropical planted forest. Soil Biol Biochem 91:99–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.08.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Paula RR, Bouillet J-P, Gonçalves JLM, Trivelin PC, Balieiro FC, Nouvellon Y, Oliveira JC, Deus JC, Bordron B, Laclau J-P (2018) Nitrogen fixation rate of Acacia mangium Wild at mid rotation in Brazil is higher in mixed plantations with Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden than in monocultures. Ann Forest Sci 75:14–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-018-0695-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pereira APA, Santana MC, Bonfim JA, Mescolotti DL, Cardoso EJBN (2018) Digging deeper to study the distribution of mycorrhizal arbuscular fungi along the soil profile in pure and mixed Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. Appl Soil Ecol 128:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2018.03.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Resh SC, Binkley D, Parrotta JA (2002) Greater soil carbon sequestration under nitrogen - fixing trees compared with Eucalyptus species. Ecosystems 5:217–231.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0067-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Richards AE, Forrester DI, Bauhus J, Scherer-Lorenzen M (2010) The influence of mixed tree plantations on the nutrition of individual species: a review. Tree Physiol 30(9):1192–1208.  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpq035CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Rocha JHT, Gonçalves JLM, Gava JL, Godinho TO, Melo EASC, Bazani JH, Hubner A, Arthur Junior JC, Wichert MP (2016) Forest residue maintenance increased the wood productivity of a Eucalyptus plantation over two short rotations. For Ecol and Manage 379:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.07.042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rocha JHT, Gonçalves JLM, Brandani CB, Ferraz AV, Franci AF, Marques ERG, Arthur Junior JC, Hubner A (2018) Forest residue removal decreases soil quality and affects wood productivity even with high rates of fertilizer application. For Ecol Manag 430:188–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Salgado TP, Alves PLCA, Kuva MA, Takahashi EN, Dias TCS, Lemes LN (2011) Sintomas de intoxicação inicial de Eucalyptus proporcionados por subdoses de glyphosate aplicadas no caule ou nas folhas. Planta Daninha 29:913–922.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-83582011000400022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Santos FM, Balieiro FC, Ataíde DHS, Diniz AR, Chaer GM (2016) Dynamics of aboveground biomass accumulation in monospecific and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus and Acacia on a Brazilian sandy soil. For Ecol Manag 363:86–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.12.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Santos FM, Chaer GM, Diniz AR, Balieiro FC (2017a) Nutrient cycling over five years of mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus and Acacia on a sandy tropical soil. For Ecol Manag 384:110–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.10.041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Santos FM, Balieiro FC, Fontes MA, Chaer GM (2017b) Understanding the enhanced litter decomposition of mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus and Acacia mangium. Plant Soil 423:1/2) 1–1/2)15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3491-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schenk HJ (2006) Root competition: beyond resource depletion. J Ecol 94:725–739.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01124.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Scolforo JRS (1997) Manejo florestal. Universidade Federal de Lavras; Fundação de Apoio ao Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Lavras, p 433Google Scholar
  64. Semchenko M, Hutchings MJ, John EA (2007) Challenging the tragedy of the commons in root competition: confounding effects of neighbor presence and substrate volume. J Ecol 95:252–260.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01210.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Silva FP, Borges RCG, Pires IE (1996) Avaliação de procedências de Acacia mangium Willd, aos 63 meses de idade, no Vale do Rio Doce-MG. Revista Árvore 20(3):299–308Google Scholar
  66. Silva EV, Gonçalves JLM, Coelho SR, Moreira RM, Mello SLM, Bouillet J-P, Jourdan C, Laclau J-P (2009) Dynamics of fine root distribution after establishment of monospecific and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium. Plant Soil 325:305–318.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-9980-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Silva EV, Bouillet J-P, Gonçalves JLM, Abreu Junior CH, Trevelin PCO, Hinsinger P, Jourdan C, Nouvellon Y, Stape JL, Laclau J-P (2011) Functional specialization of Eucalyptus fine roots: contrasting potential uptake rates for nitrogen, potassium and calcium tracers at varying soil depths. Funct Ecol 25:996–1006.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2011.01867.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Souza CR, Rossi LMB, Azevedo CP, Lima RMB (2004) Comportamento da Acacia mangium e de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla em plantios experimentais na Amazônia Central. Sci Forest 65:95–101Google Scholar
  69. Stape JL (2002) Production ecology of clonal Eucalyptus plantations in northeastern Brazil. PhD thesis. Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, p 225Google Scholar
  70. Stape JL, Binkley D, Ryan MG, Fonseca S, Loose RA, Takahashi EN, Silva CR, Silva SR, Hakamada RE, Ferreira JMDA, Lima AMN, Gava JL, Leite FP, Andrade HB, Alves JM, Silva GGC, Azevedo MR (2010) The Brazil Eucalyptus potential productivity project: influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production. For Ecol Manag 259:1684–1694.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.01.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tchichelle SV, Epron D, Mialoundama F, Koutika LS, Harmand J-M, Bouillet J-P, Mareschal L (2017) Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a eucalypt plantation and a mixed eucalypt and Acacia mangium plantation on a sandy tropical soil. Southern Forests 79(1):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.2989/20702620.2016.1221702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tonini H (2010) Características em plantios e propriedades da madeira de Acacia mangium. In: Tonini H, Halfeld-Viera BA, Silva SJR (eds) Acacia mangium: Características e seu cultivo em Roraima. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasília, p 63Google Scholar
  73. Vandermeer J (1989) The ecology of intercropping. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Voigtlaender M, Laclau J-P, Gonçalves JLM, Piccolo MC, Moreira MZ, Nouvellon Y, Ranger J, Bouillet J-P (2012) Introducing Acacia mangium trees in Eucalyptus grandis plantations: Consequences for soil organic matter stocks and nitrogen mineralization. Plant Soil 352:99–111.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0982-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Voigtlaender M, Brandani CB, Caldeira DRM, Tardy F, Bouillet J-P, Goncalves JLM, Moreira MZ, Leite FP, Brunet D, Paula RR, Laclau J-P (2019) Nitrogen cycling in monospecific and mixed-species plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus at 4 sites in Brazil. For Ecol Manag 43:56–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.12.055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zobel M, Moora M, Haukioja E (1997) Plant coexistence in the interactive environment: Arbuscular mycorrhiza should not be out of mind. Oikos 78:202–208.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3545818CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolina Braga Brandani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Felipe Martini Santos
    • 2
  • Ivanka Rosado de Oliveira
    • 3
  • Bruno Bordon
    • 3
  • Maurel Bheling
    • 4
  • Eduardo Vinicius Silva
    • 2
  • José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences - Animal and Range SciencesNew Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA
  2. 2.Federal Rural University of Rio de JaneiroSeropédicaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Forest SciencesUniversity of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of AgriculturePiracicabaBrazil
  4. 4.Embrapa Agrosilvopastoral, Brazilian Agricultural Research CorporationSinopBrazil

Personalised recommendations