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Why Mixed Forest Plantation?

  • Ranieri Ribeiro Paula
  • Ivanka Rosado de Oliveira
  • José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves
  • Alexandre de Vicente Ferraz
Chapter
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

Tropical forest plantations in monoculture are simple ecosystems much less complex than natural tropical forests with hundreds of tree species. The simplification allows concentrating the site resources for genetic material of interest reducing silvicultural treatments. Such forests occupy approximately 9.8 million ha in Brazil and 96% are composed of Eucalyptus or Pinus. Recently, governmental and civil society actions aimed at increasing forest cover in at least 12 million ha of degraded areas in Brazil. In addition, estimates indicate about 40 million ha of degraded grasslands. The expansion of forest cover in these areas with monospecific forest plantations of non-N2-fixing species requires fertilizer inputs and may have limited productivity, although several species are promising in the composition of these more biodiverse forests that can be used for different purposes, such as timber products, soil protection in sloping areas, and recovery of degraded soils. Most significant benefits in terms of productivity and ecosystem services have been obtained, when mixtures involve nitrogen N2-fixing trees and non-N2-fixing trees. In this chapter benefits of mixed plantings are introduced, as well as a brief history of these plantations in Brazil and the main combinations tested in Brazil and the other potentials.

Keywords

Non-N2-fixing trees N2-fixing trees Tropical planted forest Intercropped system Ecosystem services Multi-purpose plantations 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ranieri Ribeiro Paula
    • 1
  • Ivanka Rosado de Oliveira
    • 2
  • José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves
    • 2
  • Alexandre de Vicente Ferraz
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, Federal University of Espirito SantoAlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Forest SciencesUniversity of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of AgriculturePiracicabaBrazil
  3. 3.Institute of Forest Science and Research (IPEF)PiracicabaBrazil

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