Special Economic Zone of the Tourist and Recreation Type as a Tool of Regional Policy
Unsuccessful attempts to create special economic zones in several subjects of the Russian Federation, which have the corresponding natural conditions and resources, for the purpose of development of tourism and regional economy, actualize the problem of their economic substantiation and formation of the corresponding normative and methodological provision.
The purpose of the article is to determine the main factors that determine successfulness of implementing the projects for creation of special economic zones of the tourist and recreation type in Russian Federation and to improve organizational foundations of managing the development of territories that have tourist potential.
Methodology. In the recent years, the number of scientific works devoted to the problem of increase of effectiveness of functioning of special economic zones of various types in Russia has increased. However, most studies reflect peculiarities of development of successful zones – as a rule – technical and implementation, as well as theoretical aspects of their influence – on the territorial economy. At that, not enough attention is paid to the issues of economic substantiation of special zones of the tourist and recreation type as a tool of regional policy.
Analysis of the state of sanatorium-resort sphere in Stavropol Krai has been performed on the basis of statistical information, with the use of the methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, systemic methods, etc.
Results. The resorts of the Caucasian Spas, most of which are located in Stavropol Krai, possess unique natural and geographic resources and the balneological basis. However, the quality of recreation services is low, and the municipal resort infrastructure is very old. The services’ consumers are the Russian population (more than 90% of the general number of the customers). Thus, there’s necessity for state support for development of the territorial resort complex.
Miscalculations and mistakes at the stage of substantiation of the project of a special economic zone in Stavropol Krai, which constituted in planning the construction of the resort infrastructure on new territories and orientation at new tourist products, which required large budget investments, became the reasons for its incompleteness. Besides, it is necessary to note the existing uncertainty of the order of actions for creation of a special economic zone, ignoring the dynamics of demand for recreation services, and the consequences of influence on the environment. However, such projects allow for receipt of large federal investments into modernization and reconstruction of old resort infrastructure of municipal entities.
Conclusions. It is concluded that special economic zone of the tourist and recreation type could be an effective tool of regional policy that implements a complex approach to management, oriented at activation of economic environment. At that, all efforts should be aimed at development of existing resort infrastructure and tourist business, and after that – at formation of new recreational territory.
Substantiation of the necessity for creation of special economic area should be based on criteria of sustainability of the project, its significance for development of the region, and economic effectiveness.
KeywordsSpecial economic zone Regional policy Effectiveness of functioning of special economic zone Tourism Sanatorium and resort activities Tourist cluster
JEL CodeO 18 R 12
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