Advertisement

Issues Concerning Related Topics Such as Skills, Competence, Abilities and Capabilities

  • Paul HagerEmail author
  • David Beckett
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education book series (PRRE)

Abstract

Following the previous chapter’s discussion of the macro-level concept of practice, as a vehicle for understanding the nature of human performances, this chapter focuses on related, more micro-level concepts, such as skills, competence, abilities, capabilities, dispositions and capacities. Three major common unresolved issues surrounding these concepts are identified. First, when seeking to elucidate human performances, there is a prevailing tendency to employ these concepts to atomise the performances into their component parts. The sum of these parts is assumed to be equivalent to the original whole. This results in failure to account for the holism and relationality of human performances and the central role of professional judgement within them. Second, these micro-level concepts are typically deployed in conjunction with the assumption that the individual agent is the appropriate unit of analysis for understanding human performances. This fails to take account of crucial social aspects of such performances. Thirdly, the significance of these micro-level concepts is often masked by the common tendency to focus on the more overtly cognitive aspects of human performances. This tendency results in ‘thin’ understandings that overlook many other crucial aspects of human performances, such as affect, know-how, the role of judgement and the influences of contextual factors. Part II (i.e. Chaps.  6 8) and Part III (i.e. Chaps.  9 and  10) of the book will together provide a resolution of these issues.

References

  1. Addis, M., & Winch, C. (2017). Introduction (Special Issue on expertise). Journal of Philosophy of Education, 51(3), 557–573.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12250.
  2. Arguelles, A., & Gonczi, A. (Eds.). (2000). Competency based education and training: A world perspective. Mexico: Noriega/Limusa.Google Scholar
  3. Ash, S., Gonczi, A., & Hager, P. (1992). Combining research methodologies to develop competency-based standards for dietitians: A case study for the professions (Research Paper No. 6). National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition, DEET. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  4. Beckett, D., & Mulcahy, D. (2006). Constructing professionals’ employabilities: Conditions for accomplishment. In P. Hager & S. Holland (Eds.), Graduate attributes, learning and employability (Lifelong Learning Book Series) (Vol. 6, pp. 243–265). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Boyatzis, R. (1982). Competent manager: A model for effective performance. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Brandom, R. (1994). Making it explicit: Reasoning, representing, and discursive commitment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Brandom, R. (2001). Articulating reasons: An introduction to inferentialism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Brodie, P., Lee, A., Ripper, C., Fox, L., Dunston, R., Hill, J., & Brown, T. (2009). Birra-li Birthing Service: A case study of co-productive practice. Centre for Research in Learning and Change, Sydney: University of Technology Sydney. http://www.rilc.uts.edu.au/projects/birralicasestudy.html. Accessed March 24, 2018.
  9. Derry, J. (2013). Can inferentialism contribute to social epistemology? Journal of Philosophy of Education, 47(2), 222–235.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dreyfus, H. (2001). On the internet. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Dunston, R., Lee, A., Boud, D., Brodie, P., & Chiarella, M. (2009). Co-production and health system reform—from reimagining to re-making. The Australian Journal of Public Administration, 68(1), 39–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8500.2008.00608.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fenwick, T., & Nerland, M. (Eds.). (2014). Reconceptualising professional learning: Sociomaterial knowledges, practices and responsibilities. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Gonczi, A. (1994). Competency based assessment in the professions in Australia. Assessment in Education: Principles Policy and Practice, 1(1), 27–44.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594940010103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gonczi, A. (2013). Competency-based approaches: Linking theory and practice in professional education with particular reference to health education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45(12), 1290–1306.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2013.763590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gonczi, A., Hager, P., & Oliver, L. (1990). Establishing competency-based standards in the professions (Research Paper No. 1). National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition, DEET. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  16. Griffiths, M. (1987). The teaching of skills and the skills of teaching: A reply to Robin Barrow. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 21(2), 203–214.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.1987.tb00160.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hager, P. (1994). Is there a cogent philosophical argument against competency standards? Australian Journal of Education, 38(1), 3–18.  https://doi.org/10.1177/000494419403800101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hager, P. (2000). Judgement and the law society of NSW specialist accreditation scheme. In A. Arguelles & A. Gonczi (Eds.), Competency based education and training: A world perspective (pp. 173–186). Mexico: Noriega/Limusa.Google Scholar
  19. Hager, P. (2004). The competence affair, or why vocational education and training urgently needs a new understanding of learning. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 56(3), 409–433.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820400200262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hager, P. (2013). Not just another brick in the wall: Response by Paul Hager. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45(12), 1307–1316.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2013.764048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hager, P. (2014). Robin Barrow’s account of skills. In J. Gingell (Ed.), Education and the common good: Essays in honor of Robin Barrow (pp. 99–112). New York & Abingdon, OXON: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Hager, P. (2017). The integrated view on competence. In M. Mulder (Ed.), Competence-based vocational and professional education: bridging the worlds of work and education (pp. 203–228). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hager, P., & Beckett, D. (1995). Philosophical underpinnings of the integrated conception of competence. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 27(1), 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.1995.tb00209.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hager, P., & Gonczi, A. (1998). Development of professional competencies—A case study in the complexities of corporatist policy implementation. In A. Yeatman (Ed.), Activism and the Policy Process (pp. 56–80). Sydney: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  25. Hager, P., & Smith, E. (2004). The inescapability of significant contextual learning in work performance. London Review of Education, 2(1), 33–46.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1474846042000177465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hager, P. & Halliday, J. (2006). Recovering informal learning: Wisdom, judgement and community (Lifelong Learning Book Series) (Vol. 7). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Hager, P., & Johnsson, M. C. (2009). Learning to become a professional orchestral musician: Going beyond skill and technique. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 61(2), 103–118.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820902933221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Honderich, T. (Ed.). (1995). The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hyland, T. (1994). Competence, education and NVQs: Dissenting perspectives. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  31. Hyland, T. (2014). Competence: Conceptions and perspectives. In D. C. Phillips (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational theory and philosophy (Vol. 1, pp. 166–167). Los Angeles/London: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Johnsson, M. C., & Hager, P. (2008). Navigating the wilderness of becoming professional. Journal of Workplace Learning, 20(7/8), 526–536.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13665620810900346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kalantzis, M., & Cope, B. (2009). New learning: Elements of a science of education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kyllonen, P. C. (2014). Abilities, measurement of. In D. C. Phillips (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational theory and philosophy (Vol. 1, pp. 1–2). Los Angeles/London: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Lee, A., Dunston, R., & Fowler, C. (2012). Seeing is believing: An embodied pedagogy of ‘doing partnership’ in child and family health. In P. Hager, A. Lee, & A. Reich (Eds.), Practice, learning and change: Practice-theory perspectives on professional learning (Professional and Practice-Based Learning Book Series) (Vol. 8, pp. 267–276). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  36. Mulder, M. (2014). Conceptions of professional competence. In S. Billett, C. Harteis, & H. Gruber (Eds.), International handbook of research in professional and practice-based learning (pp. 107–137). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  37. Mulder, M. (Ed.). (2017). Competence-based vocational and professional education: Bridging the worlds of work and education. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Mulder, M., Weigel, T., & Collins, K. (2007). The concept of competence in the development of vocational education and training in selected EU member states: A critical analysis. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 59(1), 67–88.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820601145630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Passmore, J. (1980). The philosophy of teaching. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  40. Phillips, D. C., & Soltis, J. (1998). Perspectives on learning (3rd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  41. Scheffler, I. (1960). The language of education. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  42. Stone, C., Boud, D., & Hager, P. (2011). Assessment of osteopaths—Developing a capability-based approach to judging readiness to practice. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 14(4), 129–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijosm.2011.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Winch, C. (1998). The philosophy of human learning. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Winch, C. (2010). Dimensions of expertise: A conceptual exploration of vocational knowledge. London & New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  45. Winch, C. (2013). Learning at work and in the workplace: Reflections on Paul Hager’s advocacy of work-based learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45(12), 1205–1218.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2013.763594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Winch, C. (2017). Professional knowledge, expertise and perceptual ability. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 51(3), 673–688.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and Social SciencesUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Melbourne Graduate School of EducationThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations