Arne Naess and the Deep Ecology Movement

  • László Erdős


Influenced by the views of Benedict Spinoza, Mahatma Gandhi, and Buddhism, Arne Naess developed deep ecology, an ecological philosophy in the early 1970s. According to the view of Naess, relations between entities are more important components of the world than entities themselves. Individual beings live in a complex network, connected to one another in myriad ways. Humans are no exception: we depend on other creatures and the whole of nature, which means that by harming nature we harm ourselves. In Naess’ view we are so strongly connected to others that our Self includes all other living beings. Therefore, true Self-realisation can only be achieved by supporting the realisation and fulfilment of all other creatures. Arne Naess is considered one of the most influential environmental thinkers of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and his ideas continue to inspire the global green movement.


Ecocentrism Holism Self-realisation Ecosophy-T 

Worth Reading

  1. Devall, B., & Sessions, G. (2001). Deep ecology: Living as if nature mattered. Layton: Gibbs Smith.Google Scholar
  2. Naess, A. (2008). Life’s philosophy: Reason and feeling in a deeper world. Athens: The University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  3. Naess, A., & Rothenberg, D. (1989). Ecology, community and lifestyle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Worth Watching

  1. The Call of the Mountain (1997)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • László Erdős
    • 1
  1. 1.MTA-DE Lendület Functional and Restoration Ecology Research Group, DebrecenInstitute of Ecology and Botany MTA Centre for Ecological ResearchVácrátótHungary

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