Advertisement

Climate Conditions and Their Impact on Water Resources

  • Abdulrahman S. Alsharhan
  • Zeinelabidin E. Rizk
Chapter
  • 58 Downloads
Part of the World Water Resources book series (WWR, volume 3)

Abstract

The mean annual temperature is 25 °C, with slightly cooler temperatures in the eastern mountains. The mean monthly relative humidity over UAE is around 60% during winter and around 50% during summer, varying between 46% in May to 64% in December. The two wind systems affecting the UAE are the winter “Shamal” winds, which affect the western coast, and the summer monsoon, which affects the Gulf of Oman and eastern mountain areas. The average annual evaporation is 3322 mm, while the mean annual rainfall is 100 mm for the period 1976–2015.

The principal rains fall between November and March, with the maximum intensity during February and March, and about 90% of the precipitation falls during winter and spring. The wettest months are February and March, when 60% of precipitation is received. February is the rainiest month, with an average of 37.9 mm, while June is the driest month with an average of 0.3 mm. However, rainfall is extremely variable in space and time, depending on the climatic conditions, geographic location, local topography and rainfall driving mechanism.

Global warming and climate change cause variations in temperature and rainfall, a decline of aquifer recharge, a shortage in irrigation water, a depletion of aquifers and increasing soil salinity. Data collected by the National Center of Meteorology and Seismology from stations based in airports around the country indicated a rise of 0.6–2.7 °C in temperature. Changes in temperature and rainfall pose additional pressure on the limited conventional water resources in the country.

A detailed climate-change modeling study of Abu Dhabi Emirate indicates increasing water consumption in response to the increase of municipal and industrial uses. However, reductions in agricultural water use could maintain future water use equal to current consumption levels.

References

  1. ADEA (2006) Marine and coastal environment, sector paper. Abu Dhabi Environment Agency, Abu DhabiGoogle Scholar
  2. Alrustamani ZA (2014) Impacts of climate change on urban development in the UAE. The case of Dubai. Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, p 151Google Scholar
  3. Alsharhan AS, Rizk ZS, Nairn AEM, Bakhit DW, Alhajari SA (2001) Hydrogeology of an arid region. The Arabian Gulf and adjoining areas. Elsevier Publishing Company, New York/Amsterdam, p 331Google Scholar
  4. Al Shamesi MH (1993) Drainage basins and flash flood hazards in Al Ain area, United Arab Emirates. M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, UAE University, p 151Google Scholar
  5. Arnell N (1999) Climate change and global water resources. Global Environmental Change 9:S31–S49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnell NW, Delaney EK (2006) Adapting to climate change. Public water supply in England and Wales. Clim Chang 78:227–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boer B (1997) An introduction to the climate of the UAE. J Arid Environ 35:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brook GA, Sheen SW (2000) Rainfall in Oman and UAE: cyclicity, influence of the southern Oscillation and what the future may hold. Arab World Geogr 3(2):78–96Google Scholar
  9. Bullock J, Darwish A (1993) Water wars: coming conflicts in the Middle East. Victor Gollancz, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Chow VT, Maidment DR, Mays LW (1988) Applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 572Google Scholar
  11. Dessai S, Lu XF, Risbey JS (2005) On the role of climate scenarios for adaptation planning. Glob Environ Change-Human Policy Dimens 15:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dincer T, Moory M, Javed ARK (1974) Study of groundwater recharge and movement in shallow and deep aquifers in Saudi Arabia with stable isotopes and salinity data. In: Isotope techniques in groundwater hydrology. Proceedings of a symposium, vol 1. IAEA, Vienna, pp 364–374Google Scholar
  13. Döll P (2002) Impact of climate change and variability on irrigation requirements: a global perspective. Clim Chang 54(3):269–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dougherty WW, Fencl A, Elasha BO, Swartz C, Yates D, Fisher J, Klein R (2009) Climate change. Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation coastal zones in the United Arab Emirates, water resources in Abu Dhabi and dryland ecosystems in Abu Dhabi. AED (Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi), Abu Dhabi, p 197Google Scholar
  15. Garamoon HK (1996) Hydrogeological and geomorphological studies on the Abu Dhabi – Al Ain – Dubai rectangle, United Arab Emirates. Ph. D. Thesis, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, p 277Google Scholar
  16. Hejase HAN, Assi AH (2013) Global and diffuse solar radiation in the United Arab Emirates. Int J Environ Sci Dev 4(5):470–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. IPCC (2008) Climate change and water, technical paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Available from: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/technical-papers/climatechange-water-en.pdf
  18. Karl TR, Trenberth KE (2003) Modern global climate change. Science 302(5651):1719–1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khalifa AA (1995) Surface water and groundwater resources in UAE: culture and science society. Meeting on Water Balance inn UAE, Dubai, p 12Google Scholar
  20. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (1993) Climatological data, v. 3, 1979–80 to 1991–1992. Department of Soil and Water, MAF, Abu Dhabi, p 443Google Scholar
  21. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (2001) Climatological Data: v. 4, no. 4, 1992–1993 to 1999–2000. Water and Soil Department, MAF, DubaiGoogle Scholar
  22. MOEW (Ministry of Environment and Water) (2015) State of environment report. MEW, Abu Dhabi, p 36Google Scholar
  23. Murad A, Hussein S, Arman H (2014) Possible impact of climate change on water resources: a case study. Recent Advances in Environment, Ecosystems and Development, Ras Al Khaimah (Wadi Al Bih), pp 122–127Google Scholar
  24. Ouarda TBMJ, Charron C, Kumar KN, Marpu PR, Ghedira H, Molini A, Khayal (2014) Evolution of the rainfall regime in the United Arab Emirates. J Hydrol 514:258–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pielke RA Sr, Adegoke JO, Chase TN, Marshall CH, Matsui T, Niyogi D (2007) A new paradigm for assessing the role of agriculture in the climate system and in climate change. Agric For Meteorol (Special Issue) 132:234–254Google Scholar
  26. Postel S (1999) Pillar of sand. Can the irrigation miracle last? W. W. Norton and Company Ltd, New York, p 313Google Scholar
  27. Rizk ZS (2015) Why Wadi Ab Bih limestone is the most sustainable aquifer in the United Arab Emirates? Int J Sustain Water Environ Syst 7(1):21–28Google Scholar
  28. Rizk ZS, Alsharhan AS (2008) Water resources in the United Arab Emirates. Ithraa Publishing and Distribution, Amman, p 624. (in Arabic)Google Scholar
  29. Rizk ZS, Alsharhan AS, Shindo SS (1997) Evaluation of groundwater resources of United Arab Emirates. Proceedings of the Third Gulf Water Conference, Muscat, pp 95–122Google Scholar
  30. Rizk ZS, Garamoon HK, El-Etr HA (1998) Morphometry, surface runoff and flood potential of major drainage basins of Al Ain area, United Arab Emirates. Egypt J Remote Sens Space Sci 1(1):391–412Google Scholar
  31. Stakhiv E (1998) Policy implications of climate change impacts on water resources management. Water Policy 1:159–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thornthwaite CW (1948) An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geogr Rev 38:55–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdulrahman S. Alsharhan
    • 1
  • Zeinelabidin E. Rizk
    • 2
  1. 1.Middle East Geological and Environmental EstablishmentDubaiUnited Arab Emirates
  2. 2.University of Science and Technology of FujairahFujairahUnited Arab Emirates

Personalised recommendations