Drinking Water: Sources, Standards and Quality Issues

  • Abdulrahman S. Alsharhan
  • Zeinelabidin E. Rizk
Part of the World Water Resources book series (WWR, volume 3)


This chapter is mainly based on the work of Rizk (Inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the United Arab Emirates Zeinelabidin S. Rizk, Environ Geochem Health 31:27–45, 2009) that addresses inorganic chemicals in the domestic water of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The following discussion is based on the results of chemical analyses of inorganic chemicals in 396 water samples used for domestic and drinking purposes in the UAE. Field-measured levels of inorganic chemicals in the tested water samples were compared against the drinking-water standards.

Results showed remarkably large differences in levels of measured chemical constituents, depending on the water type. The measured dissolved ions were low in desalinated water and high levels in the natural groundwater used for drinking and domestic purposes.

Several bottled-water brands lack essential ions, such as fluoride, and important trace metals, while natural water used for domestic purposes may have higher levels than the drinking-water standards. The reason for this wide variation arises from the large number of companies involved in the production and distribution of domestic water to customers.

Depending on measurements of total dissolved solids and hydrogen-ion concentration as the sole basis to determine the suitability of water for domestic uses in some areas is not enough. Also, the suitability of water for drinking purposes requires complete chemical analysis to ensure compliance of the water with the international and national standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdulrahman S. Alsharhan
    • 1
  • Zeinelabidin E. Rizk
    • 2
  1. 1.Middle East Geological and Environmental EstablishmentDubaiUnited Arab Emirates
  2. 2.University of Science and Technology of FujairahFujairahUnited Arab Emirates

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