Advertisement

Investigation of High Altitude/Tropospheric Correction Factors for Electric Aircraft Applications

  • Athanasios C. MermigkasEmail author
  • David Clark
  • A. Manu Haddad
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 598)

Abstract

With rising fuel costs and CO2 emissions, the aviation industry is moving rapidly toward increased electrification of aircraft, and power demand for propulsion and safety critical systems necessitates a move to on-board distribution voltages in excess of 1 kV. The increased stress experienced by cable insulation, connectors and other equipment, combined with extreme and dynamic environmental conditions experienced in flight, presents a number of technical challenges.

This research project proposes to quantify the effect of atmospheric conditions on partial discharge thresholds in uprated aircraft electrical systems, and to derive atmospheric correction factors appropriate to in-service operating conditions to assist the aircraft electrical design engineer in the insulation coordination of modern aviation systems.

The development of a controlled atmospheric test facility for the precise replication of in-flight conditions is outlined, and an initial visual assessment of partial discharge activity in an ex-service wire harness at a range of pressures is presented. We also present plans for the ongoing development of the facility and test capabilities.

Keywords

Atmospheric correction factors Corona Partial discharge Electric breakdown Cable Electric aircraft 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was completed with the support of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under grant ref. EP/R012881/1.

The authors would also like to thank Prof. Emer. R. T. Waters for his expertise and contribution to the project.

References

  1. 1.
    Rosero, J.A., Ortega, J.A., Aldabas, E., Romeral, L.: Moving towards a more electric aircraft. IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 22(3), 3–9 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sarlioglu, B., Morris, C.T.: More electric aircraft: review, challenges, and opportunities for commercial transport aircraft. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif. 1(1), 54–64 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boglietti, A., Cavagnino, A., Tenconi, A., Vaschetto, S.: The safety critical electric machines and drives in the more electric aircraft: a survey. In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), pp. 2587–2594 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bilodeau, T.M., Dunbar, W.G., Sarjeant, W.J.: High-voltage and partial discharge systems. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 5(2), 34–43 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dunbar, W.G.: AFAPL-TR-76-41: High voltage design guide for airborne equipment, pp. 10–202 (1976)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Taghia, B., Billard, T., Carayon, J., Malec, D., Piquet, H., Belinger, A.: Investigations on partial discharges risk in aeronautical rotation machine fed by HVDC 540 V DC network. In: IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC), pp. 491–494 (2018)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nya, B.H., Brombach, J., Schulz, D.: Benefits of higher voltage levels in aircraft electrical power systems. In: Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion, ESARS (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cotton, I., Nelms, A., Husband, M.: Higher voltage aircraft power systems. IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23(2), 25–32 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Madonna, V., Giangrande, P., Galea, M.: Electrical power generation in aircraft: review, challenges, and opportunities. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif. 4(3), 646–659 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Riba, J.-R., Larzelere, W., Rickmann, J.: Voltage correction factors for air-insulated transmission lines operating in high-altitude regions to limit corona activity: a review. Energies 11(7), 1908 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ortega, P., Waters, R.T., Haddad, A., Hameed, R., Davies, A.J.: Impulse breakdown voltages of air gaps: a new approach to atmospheric correction factors applicable to international standards. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 14(6), 1498–1508 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davies, A.J., Hameed, R., Ortega, P., Waters, R.T.: Air breakdown at high altitude. In: Proceedings of Lightning & Mountains 1994, p. 214 (1994)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Petrov, N.I., Haddad, A., Griffiths, H., Waters, R.T.: Lightning strikes to aircraft radome: electric field shielding siumlation. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications, pp. 513–516 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alrumayan, F., Cotton, I., Nelms, A.: Partial discharge testing of aerospace electrical systems. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 46(2), 848–863 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Davies, W.E.V.J., Dutton, J., Harris, F.M.: An apparatus for the investigation of pre-breakdown ionization in gases at high voltages, high gas pressures and large electrode separations. J. Sci. Instrum. 43(7), 457–461 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hu, Q., Shu, L., Jiang, X., Sun, C., Zhang, S., Shang, Y.: Effects of air pressure and humidity on the corona onset voltage of bundle conductors. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 5(6), 621 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abadie, C., et al.: Influence of pressure on partial discharge spectra. In: EIC 2016 (Electrical Insulation Conference), pp. 507–510 (2016)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kuffel, J., Zaengl, W.S., Kuffel, P.: High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd edn. Elsevier, New York (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios C. Mermigkas
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Clark
    • 1
  • A. Manu Haddad
    • 1
  1. 1.AHIVE Research CentreCardiff UniversityCardiffWales, UK

Personalised recommendations