Estimation of Number of Model Units in Transformer Detailed RCLM Model Based on Terminal Measurement in the Case of Unavailable Design Data

  • Ebrahim RahimpourEmail author
  • Vahid Rashtchi
  • Reza Aghmashehr
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 598)


Providing a precise transformer model for fast transient analysis phenomena requires detailed design information and geometry. However due to restrictions on the preservation of design documents in factories or their destruction over time, the design documentation of transformers are not always available. On the other hand, a valid detailed model to study high frequency events is a necessary need in the absence of information. Detailed RCLM (R: Resistance, C: Capacitance, L: Self-inductance, M: Mutual inductance) model is a reliable and applicable model for calculation of internal voltage of transformers’ winding when they are subjected to fast transient phenomena. In case of insufficient knowledge of the windings topology, the number of model units and parameters of each model unit in RCLM model cannot be determined properly and consequently internal voltage calculation would not be calculated accurately. This work presents a new method to identify the optimum value for number of model units in detailed RCLM model based on measured transfer function at transformers’ windings terminals. Two cases are investigated in this study. In case one, the frequency dependency effect of the winding is discarded while in the second case, the series resistance of the winding is considered as a frequency dependent variable. Covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy is utilized to estimate the optimum value for the model unit numbers. The methodology is verified by comparing the simulated and measured internal voltages on a real transformer winding.


Model units Winding geometry Frequency response 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ebrahim Rahimpour
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vahid Rashtchi
    • 2
  • Reza Aghmashehr
    • 3
  1. 1.ABB AG, R&D DepartmentBad HonnefGermany
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran
  3. 3.IGMC, National Grid Dispatching DeputyTehranIran

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