Nanovaccines pp 159-179 | Cite as

Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mucosal Vaccines

  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
  • Omar González-Ortega


The use of nanomaterials is acquiring great potential in vaccinology since they can render effective vaccines due to their singular properties; nanomaterials can serve as carriers that efficiently deliver the antigen to antigen presenting cells and favor the critical steps on the elicitation of adaptive immune responses. In this chapter, the implications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the vaccinology field are analyzed. Thus far, nanotubes-based mucosal vaccines have been designed mainly to fight diseases in fish looking to reduce production losses in aquaculture. Surprisingly, the use of nanotubes to develop mucosal vaccines for mammalians remains essentially unexplored, with only some studies dealing with their use as immunostimulants in the lungs to enhance immunity against cancer and influenza. One concern on this topic is the toxicity reported for CNTs in several studies, although still under debate. Thus, an important gap exists in this regard since there is a lack of detailed toxicity studies under exposure schemes resembling vaccination dosage. Overall, the functionalized forms of CNTs have shown reduced toxicity and exerted effects in immune cells. The critical avenues to expand the development of CNTs-based vaccines are discussed and although this application is at a very early stage of investigation; CNTs are considered an important piece in the portfolio of nanomaterials for vaccine development.


Toxicity Carboxylation Amination Lung cancer Aeromonas spp. Single wall carbon nanotubes Multi-walled carbon nanotubes Inflammatory response 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
    • 1
  • Omar González-Ortega
    • 2
  1. 1.Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud y BiomedicinaUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis PotosíMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí San Luis PotosíMexico

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