Advertisement

The Critical Importance of Time, Place, and Type of Discharge from the Military

  • Elspeth Cameron RitchieEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter was first conceived by the editors as one on special populations “to include women, homeless, and Iraq and Afghanistan veterans”. However, each service era and cohort of veterans is its own special population, often defined by where and when they served. Thus, another way to conceptualize the veteran population is by either the time and place in which they served, conflicts in which they fought, or the period of service during peacetime. For convenience these conflicts and/or wars are called by their most commonly used name, which is often the country in which they take place. The chapter also focuses on the “special populations” of female veterans and homeless veterans. The chapter opens with a discussion of types of discharges veterans receive when they leave the military, as that discharge may be critically important to their future trajectory. Those with negative discharges are at higher risk for problems with employment, homelessness, drug issues and legal problems. Studies have shown that they are far more expensive to society as well because of the tremendous medical costs related to homelessness.

Keywords

Veterans Wars Female service members PTSD Homelessness Crimes Legal system 

References

  1. Bell, M. E., & McCutcheon, S. J. (2015). The Veterans Health Administration response to military sexual trauma. In E. C. Ritchie & A. L. Naclerio (Eds.), Women at war (pp. 321–328). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Camp, N. M. (2011). US army psychiatry legacies of the Vietnam War. In E. C. Ritchie (Ed), Combat and operational behavioral health (pp. 9–42), Borden Institute, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  3. Department of the Army. (2005). Active duty enlisted administrative separations (AR 635-200). Washington, DC: U.S. Headquarters.Google Scholar
  4. Gallaway, M. S., Millikan, A. M., Bell, M. R., & Ritchie, E. C. (2014). Epidemiological consultation team findings. In E. C. Ritchie (Ed.), Forensic and ethical issues in military behavioral health (pp. 135–150). Houston, TX: Borden Institute.Google Scholar
  5. Ghahramanlou-Holloway, M., George, B., Careno-Ponce, J. T., & Garrick, J. (2015). Suicide-related ideation and behaviors in military women. In Ritchie EC, Naclerio A (Eds), (PP. 243–265) Women at war, Oxford University Press, New York City.Google Scholar
  6. Grindlay, K., & Grossman, D. (2013). Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2008. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 121(2), 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Karney, B. R., Loughran, D. S., & Pollard, M. S. (2012). Comparing marital status and divorce status in civilian and military populations. Journal of Family Issues, 33(12), 1572–1594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lindberg, L. D. (2011). Unintended pregnancy among women in the US military. Contraception, 84(3), 249–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nevin, R. L., & Ritchie, E. C. (2015). The mefloquine intoxication syndrome: A significant potential confounder in the diagnosis and management of PTSD and other chronic deployment-related neuropsychiatric disorders. In Posttraumatic stress disorder and related diseases in combat veterans (pp. 257–278). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Price, J. (2018). Battling depression and suicide among female veterans. NPR News. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/05/29/614011243/battling-depression-and-suicide-among-female-veterans
  11. Ritchie, E. C. (2002). Psychiatry in the Korean War: Perils, PIES, and prisoners of war. Military Medicine, 167(11), 898–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ritchie, E. C. (Ed.). (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder and related diseases in combat veterans. Cham: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Robbins, A. S., Chao, S. Y., Frost, L. Z., & Fonseca, V. P. (2005). Unplanned pregnancy among active duty servicewomen, US Air Force, 2001. Military Medicine, 170(1), 38–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rog, D. J., & Buckner, J. C. (2007). Toward understanding homelessness: the 2007 national symposium on homelessness research. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  15. Tsai, J., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2018). Characteristics and health needs of veterans with other-than-honorable discharges: expanding eligibility in the veterans health administration. Military Medicine, 183(5–6), e153–e157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2017a, June 27). VA secretary formalizes expansion of emergency mental health care to former service members with other-than-honorable discharges. Retrieved from https://www.blogs.va.gov/VAntage/39092/va-secretary-formalizes-expansion-emergency-mental-health-care-former-service-members-honorable-discharges/
  17. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2017b, August). Facts about suicide among women veterans: August 2017. Retrieved from https://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/docs/VA-Women-Veterans-Fact-Sheet.pdf
  18. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2018, July 23). Health benefits. Retrieved from https://www.va.gov/healthbenefits/apply/
  19. White House. (2018, January 9). President Donald J. Trump takes care of veterans from the battlefront to the home front. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/president-donald-j-trump-takes-care-veterans-battlefront-home-front/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMedstar Washington Hospital CenterWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryGeorgetown University School of MedicineWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryGeorge Washington University School of MedicineWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations