Ethical Considerations of Digital Phenotyping from the Perspective of a Healthcare Practitioner
In this chapter we introduce digital phenotyping and its applications to healthcare. Despite the promise of this new form of clinical diagnosis in medicine and psychiatry, use of digital phenotyping raises several ethical concerns. We use insights derived from a clinical case study to frame these different ethical questions. We discuss how current healthcare practice and privacy policies address these questions and impose requirements for non-healthcare scientists and practitioners using digital phenotyping. We emphasize that this chapter frames the discussion from the perspective of the healthcare practitioner. We conclude by briefly reviewing more strongly theoretically based discussions of this emerging topic.
Conflict of Interest
Christian Montag mentions that he currently receives funding from Mindstrong Health for a project on molecular genetics and digital phenotyping. Of importance, his views on ethics as presented in this work have not been influenced by this financial support for his research.
- CareerBuilder (2018) More than half of employers have found content on social media that caused them not to hire a candidate, according to recent CareerBuilder survey. PRN Newswire. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/more-than-half-of-employers-have-found-content-on-social-media-that-caused-them-not-to-hire-a-candidate-according-to-recent-careerbuilder-survey-300694437.html. Accessed 8 Jul 2019
- Dawkins R (1982) The extended phenotype. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- ISO—International Organization for Standardization (2019) ISO—International Organization for Standardization. http://www.iso.org/cms/render/live/en/sites/isoorg/home.html. Accessed 8 Jul 2019
- Leefeldt E (2019) California bans gender in setting car insurance rates. CBS NEWS. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/car-insurance-california-bans-gender-as-a-factor-in-setting-rates/
- Madrid A, Smith D, Alvarez-Horine S et al (2017) Assessing anhedonia with quantitative tasks and digital and patient reported measures in a multi-center double-blind trial with BTRX-246040 for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 43:372–372Google Scholar
- Martinez-Martin N, Insel TR, Dagum P et al (2018) Data mining for health: staking out the ethical territory of digital phenotyping. npj Digital Med 1(1):68. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-018-0075-8
- Mindstrong (2019). Mindstrong Health. https://mindstronghealth.com/
- Montag C, Baumeister H, Kannen C et al (2019) Concept, possibilities and pilot-testing of a new smartphone application for the social and life sciences to study human behavior including validation data from personality psychology. J 2(2):102–115. https://doi.org/10.3390/j2020008
- National Association of Insurance Commissioners (2012) Credit-based insurance scores: how an insurance company can use your credit to determine your premium. https://www.naic.org/documents/consumer_alert_credit_based_insurance_scores.htm. Accessed 8 Jul 2019
- Reardon S (2017) AI algorithms to prevent suicide gain traction. Nature NewsGoogle Scholar
- Scism L (2017) New York car insurers could soon be banned from asking about your education. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/new-york-car-insurers-could-soon-be-banned-from-asking-about-your-education-1494952287
- Smith DG, Saljooqi K, Alvarez-Horine S et al (2018) Exploring novel behavioral tasks and digital phenotyping technologies as adjuncts to a clinical trial of BTRX-246040. International Society of CNS Clinical Trials and MethodologyGoogle Scholar