Advertisement

Perspectives on Gangs and Peer Group Influences Pertaining to Delinquency Causation

  • Peter C. Kratcoski
  • Lucille Dunn Kratcoski
  • Peter Christopher Kratcoski
Chapter

Abstract

The motivations for an adolescent to join a gang vary and include obtaining status and recognition, companionship, protection, and material gain. Scholars became interested in street gangs in the early part of the twentieth century, and writing and research on them have continued up to the present time. Much of the initial activity of street gangs was directed toward protecting their “turf” or neighborhood from invasion by other gangs. However, the focus of many gangs tended to change and became more directed toward engaging in criminal activities, particularly drug trafficking.

Attempts at gang suppression include legislation, special gang control units within police departments, and the involvement of citizens in community activities directed toward providing alternatives for those youths who may be moving toward involvement in gangs.

Keywords

Gang Street gang Conflict gang Criminal gangs Peer group Gang suppression Structure of gangs 

References

  1. Akron Beacon Journal. (2019, May 31). Four wounded in Akron shootings. pp. B1, B4.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, T. Panelist. (1994, October 21). Violence in the schools seminar, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  3. Archbold, C. A., & Meyer, M. (1999, June). Anatomy of a gang suppression unit: The social construction of an organizational response to gang problems. Police Quarterly, 2(2), 201–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asbury, H. (1928). The gangs of New York. New York: Capricorn Books.Google Scholar
  5. Baltimore Sun. (1994, September 2). p. 3A.Google Scholar
  6. Baron, S., Kennedy, L., & Forde, D. (2001). Male street youths’ conflict: The role of background, subcultural, and situational factors. Justice Quarterly, 18(4), 759–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bensinger, G. J. (1984). Chicago youth gangs: A new old problem. Journal of Crime and Justice, 7, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Block, R., & Block, R. (1993). Street gang crime in Chicago. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  9. Campbell, A. (1984). The girls in the gang. New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Cloward, R., & Ohlin, L. (1961). Illegitimate means, differential opportunity and delinquent subcultures. In Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, A. (1955). Delinquent boys. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Collins, H. (1977). Street gangs in New York: A prototype of organized youth crime. Law and Order, 25(5), 5–10.Google Scholar
  13. David Curry, G., Decker, S. H., & Pyrooz, D. C. (2014). Confronting gangs: Crime and community (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Dawley, D. (1973). A nation of lords. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  15. Decker, S., & Van Winkle, B. (1994). Slinging dope: The role of gangs and gang members. In drug sales. Justice Quarterly, 11(4), 583–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Egley & Arjunana. (2000). Highlights of the 2000 National Young Gang Survey. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  17. Esbensen, F., & Huizinga, D. (1993). Gangs, drugs, and delinquency in a survey of urban youth. Criminology, 31(4), 565–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Final Report. (1986). State task force on youth violence. Sacramento, CA: California Council on Criminal Justice.Google Scholar
  19. Hagedorn, J., & Macon, P. (1988). People & folks. Chicago, IL: Lakeview Press.Google Scholar
  20. Herbert, B. (1994, August 26). A river of blood links the street to the Capitol. Akron Beacon Journal, p. A9Google Scholar
  21. Howell, J., & Gleason, D. (1999). Youth gang drug trafficking, OJJDP juvenile justice bulletin (pp. 1–6). Washington, DC: Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  22. Huff, R., (1988, May 25). Youth gangs and public policy in Ohio: Findings and recommendations. Paper presented at the Ohio Conference on Youth Gangs and the Urban Underclass, Ohio State University, Columbus.Google Scholar
  23. Huff, R. (1989, October). Youth gangs and public policy in Ohio: Findings and recommendations. Crime and Delinquency, 35, 528–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Inciardi, J., Horowitz, R., & Pottieger, A. (1993). Street kids, street drugs, street crime: An examination of drug use and serious delinquency in Miami. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  25. Jackson, R., & McBride, W. (1990). Understanding street gangs. Placerville, CA: Custom.Google Scholar
  26. Keiser, R., (1969). The vice lords; Garden City, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  27. Klein, M.W., Gordon, M.A., and Maxson, C.L. (1986). The impact of police investigations on police-reported rates of gang and nongang homicides. Criminology 24(3), 495–496Google Scholar
  28. Kratcoski, P. (1995, February 8). Interview with members of the Caribbean Gang Task Force, Cleveland, OH.Google Scholar
  29. Kratcoski, P. (2003). Summary of gang related legislation. Retrieved February 16, 2003, from www.iir.com/nyge/ganglegis/Miscellaneous%20gang%20Legislation.htm
  30. Krisberg, B. (1978). Gang youth and hustling: The psychology of survival. In B. Krisberg & J. Uarin (Eds.), The children of Ishmael. Palo Alton, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  31. Lewis, M. (1970). Structured deviance and normative conformity: The “hustle” and the gang.Google Scholar
  32. Maslow, A. H. (1989). Motivation and personality. In J. Klofas, S. Stojkovic, & D. Kalinich (Eds.), Criminal justice organizations: Administration and management. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  33. McKay, H. (1967). A note on trends in rates of delinquency in certain areas of Chicago, Appendix F. Task force report: Juvenile delinquency and youth crime (pp. 114–118). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  34. Miller, J. (2001). One of the guys. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Miller, W. (1958). Lower class culture as a generating milieu of gang delinquency. Journal of Social Issues, 14(3), 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller, W. (1975). Violence by youth gangs and youth groups as a crime problem in major American cities. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  37. Miller, W. (1982). Crimes by youth gangs and groups in the United States. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  38. Moore, J. (1988). Gangs and the underclass: A comparative perspective. In J. Hagedorn & P. Macon (Eds.), People and folks. Chicago, IL: Lakeview Press.Google Scholar
  39. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2019). Gang Suppression Implementation Grants Program FY 2019 Competitive Grant Solicitation. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  40. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, National Youth Gang Survey: Trends from 2005 to 2012. (2012). OJJDP fact sheet. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  41. Rettig, R., Torres, M. J., & Garrett, G. R. (1977). Manny: A criminal addict’s story. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  42. Shaw, C. (1929). Delinquency areas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. Shaw, C. (1968). Juvenile delinquency: A group tradition. In J. Short Jr. (Ed.), Gang delinquency and delinquent subcultures (pp. 86–87). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  44. Sheldon, R., Tracy, S., & Brown, W. (2001). Youth gangs in American society. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  45. Sheley, J. F., & Wright, J. D. (1993). Gun acquisitions and possession in selected juvenile samples. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  46. Short Jr., J. F., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1965). Group process and gang delinquency (pp. 25–46). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Spergel, I. A., & Curry, G. D. (1992). Reducing gang violence: an overview. In M. D. Biskup (Ed.), Youth violence. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.Google Scholar
  48. Sullivan, M. L. (1992). Greed causes youth violence. In M. D. Biskus (Ed.), Youth violence. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.Google Scholar
  49. Tannenbaum, F. (1939). Crime and the community. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Taylor, C. (1990). Gang imperialism. In R. Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (p. 105). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  51. The Times Leader. (1994, September 2). p. 3A.Google Scholar
  52. Thrasher, F. (1927). The gang. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Whyte, W. (1955). Street corner society (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  54. Wooden, W. S. (1995). Renegade kids, suburban outlaws. New York: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  55. Yablonsky, L. (1966). The violent gang. Baltimore: Penguin Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter C. Kratcoski
    • 1
  • Lucille Dunn Kratcoski
    • 2
  • Peter Christopher Kratcoski
    • 3
  1. 1.Sociology/Justice StudiesKent State UniversityTallmadgeUSA
  2. 2.TallmadgeUSA
  3. 3.Williams, Welser & Kratcoski LLCKentUSA

Personalised recommendations