Concluding Thoughts

  • Femi J. Kolapo
Part of the African Histories and Modernities book series (AHAM)


This chapter reflects on the major themes of the study, highlights them, and draws out their significance. As autonomous protagonists in the mediation of Christian-African encounter back in the period between 1857 and 1890 at the Niger-Benue Confluence, African women heralded a trend lasting into the current period. The importance of Crowther’s agents’ indigenous provenance from the Confluence area and their operating outside of the direct supervisory and ideological subjection to Europeans is here highlighted as signifying a more home-bred attempt at making Christianity an African religion. The agents’ African cultural identity helped them to translate their message to better fit the local cultural template. However, the effectiveness of their evangelistic program among a people subject to the exactions of a powerful independent jihadist state free from direct or indirect European domination was significantly curtailed. The school and church programs, the crux of missionary success elsewhere, were here impeded.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Femi J. Kolapo
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GuelphGuelphCanada

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