Impact of Demand Response Program on Hybrid Renewable Energy System Planning

  • Mohsen SedighiEmail author
  • Mohammad Moradzadeh


Due to the recent developments in technologies of renewable energy sources (RES) and power electronic converters in order to create high-quality AC power, the efficiency and justification of using RES in the power systems are enhanced. Hence, by considering environmental and economic merits, the electric power systems are currently moving towards small-scale renewable and other distributed energy resources, as efficient alternatives. Moreover, in remote and isolated areas, Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES) is already recognized as more cost-effective resource. In fact, fast growing of the electrical power demand in modern societies cannot efficiently be supplied only by expansion of and investment on centralized large-scale resources and/or relevant transmission/distribution systems. Thereby, the optimal planning of hybrid RES and distributed energy resources together with demand response (DR) programs is incorporated to supply the peak load efficiently at local smart grids.


Demand response program Planning Hybrid RES Smart grid 


  1. 1.
    R. Siddaiah, R.P. Saini, A review on planning, configurations, modeling and optimization techniques of hybrid renewable energy systems for off grid applications. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 58, 376–396 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Jung, M. Villaran, Optimal planning and design of hybrid renewable energy systems for microgrids. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 75, 180–191 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Omar, B. Kankar, Optimal planning and design of a renewable energy based supply system for microgrids. Renew. Energy 45, 7–15 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Zeng et al., Integrated planning for transition to low-carbon distribution system with renewable energy generation and demand response. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 29 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.S. Vardakas, N. Zorba, C.V. Verikoukis, A survey on demand response programs in smart grids: pricing methods and optimization algorithms. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 17, 152–178 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F.A. Farret, M.G. Simoes, Integration of Renewable Sources of Energy (Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Ghofrani, N.N. Hosseini, Chapter 8: Optimizing Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems: A Review, in Sustainable Energy—Technological Issues, Applications and Case Studies, (Intech, London, 2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Bagheria et al., Optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy infrastructure for urban sustainability: green vancouver. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 95, 254–264 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Givler, P. Lilienthal, Using HOMER® Software, NREL ‘s Micro Power Optimization Model, to Explore the Role of Gen-Sets in Small Solar Power Systems; Case Study (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), SriLanka, 2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Myhr et al., Levelized cost of energy for offshore floating wind turbines in a life cycle perspective. Renew. Energy 66, 714–728 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.J. Mulligan et al., Levelized cost of electricity for organic photovoltaics. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 133, 26–31 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    How Do Wind Turbines Work?: Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, 2018Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Pookpunt, W. Ongsakul, Design of optimal wind farm configuration using a binary particle swarm optimization at Huasai district. Energy Convers. Manag. 108, 160–180 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Sedighi et al., Simultaneous optimization of electrical interconnection configuration and cable sizing in offshore wind farms. J. Mod. Power Syst. Cle. Energy 6, 749–762 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Demiroren, U. Yilmaz, Analysis of change in electric energy cost with using renewable energy sources in Go¨kceada, Turkey: an island example. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 14, 323–333 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    HOMER® Pro Version 3.7, User Manual: HOMER energy, August 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering Department, Sari BranchIslamic Azad University (IAU)SariIran
  2. 2.Electrical Engineering DepartmentShahid Rajaee Teacher Training UniversityLavizanIran

Personalised recommendations