Learning a Behavior Model of Hybrid Systems Through Combining Model-Based Testing and Machine Learning

  • Bernhard K. Aichernig
  • Roderick Bloem
  • Masoud Ebrahimi
  • Martin Horn
  • Franz Pernkopf
  • Wolfgang Roth
  • Astrid Rupp
  • Martin TapplerEmail author
  • Markus Tranninger
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11812)


Models play an essential role in the design process of cyber-physical systems. They form the basis for simulation and analysis and help in identifying design problems as early as possible. However, the construction of models that comprise physical and digital behavior is challenging. Therefore, there is considerable interest in learning such hybrid behavior by means of machine learning which requires sufficient and representative training data covering the behavior of the physical system adequately. In this work, we exploit a combination of automata learning and model-based testing to generate sufficient training data fully automatically.

Experimental results on a platooning scenario show that recurrent neural networks learned with this data achieved significantly better results compared to models learned from randomly generated data. In particular, the classification error for crash detection is reduced by a factor of five and a similar F1-score is obtained with up to three orders of magnitude fewer training samples.


Hybrid systems Behavior modeling Automata learning Model-Based Testing Machine learning Autonomous vehicle Platooning 



This work is supported by the TU Graz LEAD project “Dependable Internet of Things in Adverse Environments”. It is also partially supported by ECSEL Joint Undertaking under Grant No.: 692455.


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Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard K. Aichernig
    • 1
  • Roderick Bloem
    • 1
  • Masoud Ebrahimi
    • 1
  • Martin Horn
    • 1
  • Franz Pernkopf
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Roth
    • 1
  • Astrid Rupp
    • 1
  • Martin Tappler
    • 1
    Email author
  • Markus Tranninger
    • 1
  1. 1.Graz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

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