This chapter examines the rise of populism on both the far left and hard right, and the way in which it has eroded support across Europe for traditional centre and centre-left parties. This is explored as a consequence of the 2008 financial crisis and subsequent decade of austerity, as well as the gross mismanagement of the 2014–2016 refugee crisis—and, more broadly, class resentment, anti-elite sentiment and a perceived threat to cultural and ethnic identities. Contrary to a lot of popular belief, therefore, many of these complaints are not strictly or even primarily economic. This issue is also explored through the lens of Brexit and the impact of the rise of Trump in the USA. Furthermore, the rising tide of anti-EU and anti-immigrant populism across the continent has made it clear the problems of migration pose the greatest challenge and potential threat to the stability of the European project.