Structure and Long-Term Dynamics of Landscape as a Reflection of the Natural Processes and History of Nature Use: The Example of the Northwest of European Russia
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Landscape is understood as a set of landscape sites (i.e., the stable part of the landscape described by the landform, upper layer of soil-forming bedrock, and moistening regime) and long-term landscape states. Landscape dynamics is regarded as the change of the long-term states over time. We present the main cornerstones of the landscape dynamics concept. Each type of landscape sites has its peculiar set of landscape-dynamic trajectories (series of changes of long-term landscape states). The research was performed in the northwestern European Russia, where the diversity of natural conditions is supplemented by change of state borders, ethnic groups, priorities, and systems of nature use and management for centuries. Based on the field data, we describe the main processes responsible for the long-term dynamics of taiga landscapes: dynamics of forest stands, forest regeneration after fires and windfalls, reforestation on abandoned agricultural lands, and peat bogs changes owing to drainage. The most effective way of study, representation, and simulation of landscape changes is landscape-dynamical mapping, including creation of map series based on the unified system of landscape sites. A series of large-scale maps created for the key studied area (map of landscape sites and long-term landscape states, impact map, map of present-day processes) is presented.
KeywordsLandscape dynamics Landscape site Long-term landscape state Northwestern European Russia Landscape-dynamical mapping
The studies are supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 19-05-01003).
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