Advertisement

Landscape Structure as Indicator of Debris Flow and Avalanche Activity in the Russian Caucasus Mountains

  • Marina N. Petrushina
Chapter
  • 12 Downloads
Part of the Landscape Series book series (LAEC, volume 26)

Abstract

The chapter focuses on landscape structure of paragenetic geosystems shaped by snow avalanches and debris flows with main attention to the stopping zone. The research was performed in the mountains of Western and Central Caucasus based on the long-term field observations, landscape mapping, interpretation of remote sensing data, and phytoindication. Landscape structure in the zones of natural processes activity is polystructural and depends on the type of processes, their frequency, and the internal features of the affected landscapes. Wet avalanches are followed by the strongest changes. A single influence, especially accompanied by the airwave, often results in relatively rapid recovery of zonal vegetation. As a result of prolonged avalanche releases, nature complexes of neighboring zonal types or subtypes may develop. A series of complexes indicating the frequency and duration of avalanches emerges in the impact zones. We distinguished several types of landscape patterns indicating the avalanche activity. Intensification of landscape changes in the late twentieth and the early twenty-first century due to the large avalanche and debris flow releases was detected.

Keywords

Landscape structure Debris flows Avalanches Landscape indication 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was conducted according to the State target for Lomonosov Moscow State University “Structure, functioning and evolution of natural and natural-anthropogenic geosystems” (project no. АААА-А16-116032810081-9).

References

  1. Akifyeva, K. V. (1980). Methodical tool for deciphering aerial photographs in the study of avalanches. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  2. Akifyeva, K. V., Kravzova, V. I., & Turmanina, V. I. (1970). Large-scale complex investigations of avalanche cones as objects of on colorgraghic materials. Informatsionny Sbornik MGG, 15, 55–72. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  3. Akifyeva, K. V., Volodicheva, N. A., Troshkina, E. S., et al. (1978). Avalanches of the USSR and their influence on the formation of natural-territory complexes. Arctic and Alpine Research, 10(2), 223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aleinikova, A. M., Petrushina, M. N., Sukhoruchkina, E. S., et al. (2005). Phytoindication of the age of moraine and mud-flow deposits of the Central Caucasus (the Gerkhozhan-su river basin). Proceedings of Moscow University, series 5 Geography, 4, 40–47. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  5. Bullschweiler, M., & Stoffel, M. (2010). Tree-ring and debris flow: Recent developments, future directions. Progress in Physical Geography, 34(5), 625–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burrows, C. J., & Burrows, V. L. (1976). Procedures for the study of snow avalanche chronology using growth layers of woody plants. University of Colorado Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, Occasional Paper 23.Google Scholar
  7. Butler, D. R. (2001). Geomorphic process–disturbance corridors: A variation on a principle of landscape ecology. Progress in Physical Geography, 25(2), 237–248.Google Scholar
  8. Butler, D. R., & Sawyer, C. F. (2008). Dendrogeomorphology and high magnitude snow avalanches. A review and case study. Natural Hazards Earth System Science, 8, 303–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chernomoretz, S. S., Petrakov, D. A., Aleynikov, A. A., et al. (2018). The outburst of Bashkara glacier lake (Central Caucasus, Russia) on September 1, 2017. Earth’s Cryosphere, 22(2), 70–80.Google Scholar
  10. Connell, J. H., & Slatyer, R. O. (1977). Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. American Naturalist, 111, 1119–1144. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/e3bgrads/JC/Connell_1977_AmNat.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erschbamer, B. (1989). Vegetation on avalanche paths in the Alps. Vegetatio, 80, 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fedina, A. E. (1977). Dynamics of mountain landscapes. In Relief and landscapes (pp. 200–207). Moscow: MSU Publishing House. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. Forman, R. T. T., & Godron, M. (1986). Landscape ecology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Gorchakovskiy, P. L., & Shiyatov, S. G. (1985). Phytoindication of environmental conditions and natural processes in high mountains. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  15. Gruber, U., & Margreth, S. (2001). Winter 1999: A valuable test of the avalanche-hazard mapping procedure in Switzerland. Annals of Glaciology, 28, 328–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gvozdetskiy, N. A. (1979). Principal problems of physical geography. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  17. Holtmeier, F.-K. (2009). Mountain timberlines: Ecology, patchiness, and dynamics (Advances in global change research, 36). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hupp, C. R., Osterkamp, W. R., & Thornton, J. L. (1987). Dendrogeomorphic evidence and dating of recent debris flows on Mount Shasta, Northern California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1396–B, 1–30.Google Scholar
  19. Ishankulov, M. Sh. (1982). Landscapes of cones of removal and formation of their morphological structure. Issues in Geography, 121. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  20. Khapaev, S. A. (1978). Dynamics of avalanche natural complexes: An example from the high-mountain Teberda State Reserve, Caucasus Mountains, USSR. Arctic and Alpine Research, 10(2), 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khoroshev, A. V. (2005). Effect of avalanche and mudflows on the structure of the components links in the high-mountain landscapes. Proceedings of Congress of Russian Geographical Society, 2, 95–100. Sankt-Peterburg. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  22. Kovalev, A. P. (2009). Landscape as itself and for man. Khar’kov: Burun Kniga. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  23. Malanson, G. P., & Butler, D. R. (1986). Floristic patterns on avalanche paths in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Physical Geography, 7, 231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mc Clung, D. M., & Schaerer, P. A. (1993). The avalanche handbook. Seattle: The Mountaineers.Google Scholar
  25. Mears, A. I. (1992). Snow-avalanche hazard analysis for land use planning and engineering (Bulletin 49). Denver: Colorado Geological Survey.Google Scholar
  26. Oleinikov, A. D. (2002). Snow avalanches on the Great Caucasus in the conditions of climate warming. Materials of glacilogical research, 93, 67–72. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  27. Oliferov, A. (1982). Geographical aspects of melioration of mudflow landscapes. Simferopol: Publishing house of Simferopol University. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  28. Patten, R. S., & Knight, D. H. (1994). Snow avalanches and vegetation pattern in Cascade Canyon, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA. Arctic and Alpine Research, 26(1), 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pebetez, M., Lugan, R., & Raeriswyl, P. A. A. (1997). Climatic change and debris flows in high mountain regions: The case study of the Ritigraben torrent (Swiss Alps). Climate Change, 36, 371–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Perov, V., Chernomorets, S., Budarina, O., et al. (2017). Debris flow hazards for mountain regions of Russia: Regional features and key events. Natural Hazards, 88(1), 199–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Petrushina, M. N. (1992). Landscapes of the Baksan valley. In G. I. Rychagov & I. B. Seinova (Eds.), Nature use of the Elbrus area (pp. 120–152). Moscow: MSU Publishing House. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  32. Petrushina, M. N. (2001). Impact of debris flows and snow avalanches on the high mountain landscapes. Materials of glacilogical research, 91, 96–104. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  33. Petrushina, M. N. (2007). Effect of debris flow activity on the landscapes of the Central Caucasus. In Proceedings of the international conference on debris-flow hazards mitigation: Mechanics, prediction, and assessment, proceedings (pp. 67–76). Rotterdam: Millpress.Google Scholar
  34. Petrushina, M. N. (2015). Influence of avalanche and debris flow activity on the current state of landscapes of the Western Caucasus. Proceedings of Moscow University, series Socio-ecological technologies, 1–2, 111–126. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  35. Pickett, S. T. A., & White, P. S. (Eds.). (1985). The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  36. Potter, N. Jr. (1969). Tree-ring dating of snow avalanches tracks and geomorphic activity of avalanches, northern Absaroka Mountains. Wyoming. In S. A. Schumn & W. C. Bradley (Eds.), Contribution to quaternary research. Geological Society of America, Special Paper123 (pp. 141–165). United States.Google Scholar
  37. Rapp, A., & Nyberg, R. (1981). Alpine debris flows in Northern Scandinavia. Morphology and dating by lichenometry. Geografiska Annaler Series A, Physical Geography, 63(3/4), 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rapp, A., Li, J., & Nyberg, R. (1991). Mudflow disasters in mountainous areas. Ambio, 20(6), 210–218.Google Scholar
  39. Rixen, C., Haag, S., Kulakowski, D., et al. (2007). Natural avalanche disturbance shapes plant diversity and species composition in subalpine forest belt. Journal of Vegetation Science, 18, 735–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Samoylova, G. S., Avessalomova, I. A., & Petrushina, M. N. (2004). Mountain landscapes. Levels of space organization. In K. N. Dyakonov & E. P. Romanova (Eds.), Geography, society and environment. Vol. II. Functioning and present-day state of landscapes (pp. 84–100). Moscow: Gorodets. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  41. Seynova, I. B., & Tatyan, L. V. (1977). The critical meaning of meteorological parameters of debris flow hazard situations in the high mountainous region of the Central Caucasus. Meteorology and hydrology, 12, 74–82. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  42. Seynova, I. B., Malneva, I. V., & Kononova, N. K. (1998). Dynamics of and forecasting of glacial debris flows of the Central Caucasus. Materials of glacilogical research, 84, 114–120. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  43. Simonson, S. E., Greene, E. M., Fassnacht, S. R., et al. (2010). Practical methods for using vegetation patterns to estimate avalanche frequency and magnitude. Proceeding of the International Snow Science Workshop, 548–555.Google Scholar
  44. Solnetsev, V. N. (1997). Structural landscape studies. Moscow: MSU Publishing House. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  45. Stoffel, M., Tiranti, D., & Huggel, C. (2014). Climate change impacts on mass movements – Case studies from the European Alps. Science of the Total Environment, 493, 1255–1266.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Strunk, H. (1989). Dendrogeomorphology of debris flow. Dendrochronoligia, 7, 15–24.Google Scholar
  47. Suffling, R. (1993). Induction of vertical zones in sub-alpine valley forests by avalanche-formed fuel breaks. Landscape Ecology, 8, 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Szymczak, S., Bollschweiler, M., Stoffel, M., et al. (2010). Debris-flow activity and snow avalanches in a steep watershed of the Valais Alps (Switzerland): Dendrogeomorphic event reconstruction and identification of triggers. Geomorphology, 116, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Troshkina, Y. S. (1992). Avalanches in the Elbrus region. In G. I. Rychagov & I. B. Seinova (Eds.), Nature use of the Elbrus area (pp. 64–85). Moscow: MSU Publishing House. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  50. Turmanina, V. I. (1980). Influence of avalanche activity on the vegetation. In Avalanches of Priel’brus’ye (pp. 47–62). Moscow: MSU Publishing House. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  51. Tushinskiy, G. K., & Turmanina, V. I. (1971). Phytoindication of glacial-debris flow dynamics of the last millennium. In G. K. Tushinskiy (Ed.), Phytoindication methods in glaciology (pp. 142–153). Moscow: MSU Publishing House. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  52. Vlasov, V. P., Khanbekov, I. I., & Chuenkov, V. S. (1980). Forest and snow avalanches. Moscow: Lesnya promyshlennost’. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  53. Zalikhanov, M. C. (Ed.). (2001). Inventory of the avalanche and debris flow hazards in the North Caucasus. Saint Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  54. Zaporozhchenko, E. V., & Kamenyev, N. S. (2011). Debris flow dangers of the 21st century in the Northern Caucasus (Russia). In R. Genevois, D. L. Hamilton, & A. Prestininzi (Eds.), Debris-flow hazards mitigation: Mechanics, prediction, and assessment (pp. 813–822).Google Scholar
  55. Zolotarev, A. E. (1980). Study of snow and avalanches in Elbrus region by fotogrammetry method. In Avalanches of Priel’brus’ye (pp. 47–62). Moscow: MSU Publishing House. (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina N. Petrushina
    • 1
  1. 1.Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations