Genitourinary Tumors: PET/CT for Response Assessment of Genitourinary Tumors Following Immunotherapy

  • Egesta Lopci
  • Paolo Andrea Zucali


Urothelial carcinoma is one the most frequent malignances of the urinary tract. Nowadays, immunotherapy has found a proper clinical indication for UC, either as second-line regimen after treatment failure or as first-line therapy in patients ineligible for platinum-based chemotherapy. As for other cancer types, one of the major challenges concerns the assessment of response to immunotherapy, requiring along the year the development of specific response criteria.

In the current chapter, we will illustrate some clinical examples of metastatic UC treated with checkpoint inhibitors as standalone or in combination with other treatments, by reporting the most relevant clinical and instrumental findings.


Urothelial carcinoma Bladder cancer Immunotherapy Response assessment 


  1. 1.
    Kim HS, Seo HK. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for urothelial carcinoma. Investig Clin Urol. 2018;59(5):285–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tripathi A, Plimack ER. Immunotherapy for urothelial carcinoma: current evidence and future directions. Curr Urol Rep. 2018;19(12):109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Prescott S, Jackson AM, Hawkyard SJ, et al. Mechanisms of action of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin: local immune mechanisms. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31(Suppl 3):S91–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alfred Witjes J, Lebret T, Compérat EM, et al. Updated 2016 EAU guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2017;71:462–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Niegisch G, Gerullis H, Lin SW, et al. A real-world data study to evaluate treatment patterns, clinical characteristics and survival outcomes for first- and second-line treatment in locally advanced and metastatic urothelial cancer patients in Germany. J Cancer. 2018;9:1337–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hsu MM, Balar AV. PD-1/PD-L1 combinations in advanced urothelial cancer: rationale and current clinical trials. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2019;17(3):e618–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ghasemzadeh A, Bivalacqua TJ, Hahn NM, Drake CG. New strategies in bladder cancer: a second coming for immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;22:793–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Egesta Lopci
    • 1
  • Paolo Andrea Zucali
    • 2
  1. 1.Nuclear MedicineHumanitas Clinical and Research Hospital - IRCCSRozzanoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medical OncologyHumanitas Clinical and Research Hospital - IRCCSRozzanoItaly

Personalised recommendations