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Geology and Geomorphology

  • K. S. Anil KumarEmail author
  • S. Thayalan
  • R. S. Reddy
  • M. Lalitha
  • B. Kalaiselvi
  • S. Parvathy
  • K. Sujatha
  • Rajendra Hegde
  • S. K. Singh
  • Bipin B. Mishra
Chapter
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)

Abstract

Parent material is a critical component in any pedogenic system. In order to interpret the soil data for specific land uses, all geological, sedimentological and geomorphological observations are of prime importance. Indian geology is diverse and contains rocks belonging to different geologic periods with reference to Deccan Traps, Gondwana and Vindhyayan. Plate tectonics, tectonic evolution, and proterozoic orogen with archaean era marking the drift of the Gondwana supercontinent and Mesozoic period, with greatest volcanic eruptions on peninsular India over Archaean gneiss and schists. This chapter also highlights the Cambrian formations being occurred in the salt range in Punjab and central Himalayas. Mesozoic, with the Deccan lava flows occurring in Peninsular India, consists of archean gneisses and schists, which are the oldest rocks. Cambrian Period is found in the salt range in Punjab and the Spiti area in central Himalayas. The Indian sub-continent comprises of three major geomorphological components, namely the Himalayas, the Great Plains and the Peninsular India. The Indian shield consists of archean gneisses and schists and Assam-Burma geological province which was a part of Tethys sea. Central Uplands comprise of the Malwa Plateau, Aravalli ranges, Madhya Bharat Pathar, east Rajasthan uplands, the Vindhyayan, the Bundelkhand uplands and the Narmada valley. The Deccan Plateau consists of Satpura range and Maharashtra plateau in the north and Karnataka and Telangana plateaus in the south Eastern plateau and is represented by Baghelkhand plateau, Chotanagpur plateau, Garhjat hills, Mahanadi basin and Dandakaranya upland. The Western Hills consist of North Sahyadri, Central Sahyadri, Nilgiris and South Sahyadri, running parallel to the west coast. The highly dissected Eastern Hills running in semi-circular fashion border the east coast of India and consist of Eastern Ghats and the Tamil Nadu Upland. There are two coastal plains, one along the Arabian Sea (west coast) and the other along the Bay of Bengal. There are two groups of Islands namely the Arabian Sea Islands and the Bay of Bengal Islands.

Keywords

Parent materials Geology Geomorphology Physiographic divisions Pedogenesis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Anil Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Thayalan
    • 1
  • R. S. Reddy
    • 1
  • M. Lalitha
    • 1
  • B. Kalaiselvi
    • 1
  • S. Parvathy
    • 1
  • K. Sujatha
    • 1
  • Rajendra Hegde
    • 1
  • S. K. Singh
    • 2
  • Bipin B. Mishra
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.ICAR-National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use PlanningBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use PlanningNagpurIndia
  3. 3.Bihar Agricultural UniversityBhagalpurIndia
  4. 4.Pedology and Land Use Planning, School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental SciencesHaramaya UniversityDire DawaEthiopia
  5. 5.Commission 1.4 (Soil Classification), International Union of Soil Sciences (2018–22)ViennaAustria

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