Advertisement

History of Soil Research

  • A. Subba RaoEmail author
  • J. Somasundaram
Chapter
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)

Abstract

History enables to plan with creative thinking skills for sustained better present and brighter future. Soil resource is deeply rooted to human civilization as being the key to sustainable agriculture as well as other functions. The Hindu Vedic literature as well as Bible supported the vital role of soils. This chapter focuses on the history of soil research under (i) ancient era (ii) medieval era and (iii) recent era including pre- and post-independence periods. Researches on colloidal chemistry and acidity during early 1930s have set a platform for in-depth understanding of different facets of soil research including pedology and edaphology. The All India Coordinated Research Projects (AICRP) such as long-term fertilizer experiments (LTFE), soil genesis, survey, mapping and classification have contributed significantly in strategic land use planning processes and their implementation. Soil test crop response (STCR) correlation and micro-nutrient and secondary elements have played crucial role in strengthening the soil research. Although the soil research in India is relatively at youthful stage, however, it has taken rapid strides in terms of development as a single major subject and capable of accommodating and fostering other allied subjects under its umbrella.

Keywords

Ancient Medieval and pre-independence Post-independence soil research priorities 

References

  1. Abrol IP, Nambiar KKM (1997) Fertility management of Indian soils-A historical perspective. Adv Geoecology 29:293–310Google Scholar
  2. Abrol IP, Nambiar KKM (2008) Fertility management of Indian soils—a historical perspective. Asian Agri-Hist 12(1):3–18Google Scholar
  3. Abrol IP, Saha AK, Acharya CL (1978) Effect of exchangeable sodium on some soil physical properties. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 26:98–105Google Scholar
  4. Abrol IP, Yadav JSP, Massoud FI (1988) Salt affected soils and their management. FAO Soils Bull 39:131Google Scholar
  5. Agarwal RR, Yadav JSP, Gupta RN (1968) Saline and alkali soils of India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–127Google Scholar
  6. Ahmad S (1973) Soil erosion in India. Asia Publ. House, Bombay, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Anonymous (1982) 20 Point programme. Field Manual on Dry land Agriculture, published by ICAR and Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi, pp 1–87Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous (2005) Invited papers of the national seminar on soil testing, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, 21–22 Jan 2005, pp 1–64Google Scholar
  9. Babu R, Tejwani KG, Agarwal MC, Bhushan LS (1978) Distribution of erosion index and iso-erodent map of India. J Soil Water Conserv 6(1):1–14Google Scholar
  10. Basak BB, Biswas DR (2009) Influence of potassium solubilizing microorganism (Bacillus mucilaginosus) and waste mica on potassium uptake dynamics by sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) grown under two Alfisols. Plant Soil 317:235–255.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9805-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Behera SK, Lakaria BL, Singh MV, Somasundaram J (2011) Molybdenum in soils, crops and fertilizers. Indian J Fertil 7(5):52–57Google Scholar
  12. Beri V, Meelu OP (1981) Substitution of nitrogen through green manure in rice. Indian Farming 31(5):6–7Google Scholar
  13. Bhardwaj KKR, Dev SP (1985) Production and decomposition of Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers. in relation to its effects on yields of wetland rice. Trop Agric Trin 62:233–236Google Scholar
  14. Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Mandal C, Chandran P, Ray SK, Sarkar D, Velmourougane K, Srivastava A, Sidhu GS, Singh RS, Sahoo AK, Dutta D, Nair KM, Srivastava R, Tiwary P, Nagar AP, Nimkhedka SS (2013) Soils of India: historical perspective, classification and recent advances. Curr Sci 104(10):1308–1323Google Scholar
  15. Biswas TD, Narayanasamy G (eds) (1996a) Soil-related constraints in crop production. Bulletin No 15. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–176Google Scholar
  16. Biswas TD, Narayanasamy G (eds) (1996b) Soil Management in relation to land degradation and environment. Bulletin No 17. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–167Google Scholar
  17. Biswas TD, Narayanasamy G, Yadav JSP, Dev G, Katyal JC, Sidhu PS (eds) (1991) Soil management for sustainable agriculture in dryland areas. Bulletin No 16. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–143Google Scholar
  18. Biswas TD, Narayanasamy G, Yadav JSP, Dev G, Katyal JC, Sidhu PS (1994) Soil management for sustainable agriculture in dryland areas, published Indian society of soil science, New Delhi, pp 1-143Google Scholar
  19. Borthakur A, Singh P (2013) History of agricultural research in India. Curr Sci 105(5):582–592Google Scholar
  20. Botterro I, Elena C, Vercontter J (1965) The nearest: the early civilization. Weidinfield and Nicolson, London, p 782Google Scholar
  21. Brevik EC, Hartemink AE (2010) Early soil knowledge and the birth and development of soil science. Catena 83(1):23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Piazza M (1994) The history and geography of human genesGoogle Scholar
  23. Chandy KT (2002) Agricultural research and education in India. Booklet No. 435. Agricultural Extension Education, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. Chatterjee B, Datta S (1951) Phosphate fixation by clay minerals, montmorillonite and kaonilite. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 2(2):224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chhabra R, Abrol IP (1977) Reclaiming effect of rice grown in a sodic soil. Soil Sci 124:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chaudhary RS, Damodar Reddy D, Singh AB, Ramana S, Lakaria BL (2008) IISS—a profile. Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, pp 1–42Google Scholar
  27. Das DC (1977) Soil conservation practices and erosion control in India—a case study in soil conservation and management in developing countries. Soil Bulletin No. 33. Food and Agricultural Organization, United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp 11–50Google Scholar
  28. Datta SC (1996) Modification of a kinetic model interpreting threshold concept of potassium release and fixation. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 44:644–648Google Scholar
  29. Datta SC (2011) Potassium dynamics and status in Indian soils. Karnataka J Agric Sci 24(1):7–11Google Scholar
  30. De SK (1963) India's contribution to the study of phosphate fixation by soils, clay minerals, hydrous oxides and lime. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 11:195–201Google Scholar
  31. Dhar NR (1934) Molasses and press-mud in alkali land reclamation. J Indian Chem Soc 2:105–111Google Scholar
  32. Gangopadhyay R (1932) Some materials for the study of agriculture and agriculturists in ancient India. N.C. Mukherjee & Co., SeramporeGoogle Scholar
  33. Ghosh AB (1976) Non-conventional sources of fertilizer potassium. Bull Indian Soc Soil Sci 10:317–323Google Scholar
  34. Ghosh AB, Hasan R (1975) Available potassium status in Indian soils. Bull Indian Soc Soil Sci 10:164–169Google Scholar
  35. Ghosh AB, Hassan R (1979) Phosphorus fertility status of soils of India. Bulletin No. 12. ISSS, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  36. Government of India (GOI) (1990) Indian agriculture in brief, 23rd edn. Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperation, New Delhi, p 160Google Scholar
  37. Gupta MD, Chatterjee N, Gupta SK (1984) Utilization of Calcutta City wastes as manures. In: Seminar on soil resources and productivity management, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  38. Harrison WH, Das S (1921) The retention of soluble phosphates in calcareous and non-calcareous soils. Imperial Department of Agriculture in IndiaGoogle Scholar
  39. Hartemink AE (2015) 90 years IUSS and global soil science. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 61:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hasan R (1996) Phosphorus status of soils in India. Better Crops Int 10(2):4–5Google Scholar
  41. Howard A (1940) An agricultural testament. London, p 262Google Scholar
  42. Howard A, Wad Y (1931) The waste products of agriculture: their utilization as humus. Humphrey Milford & Oxford University Press, Oxford. Retrieved 9 Aug 2010Google Scholar
  43. ISSS (1975) Potassium in soils, crops and fertilizers. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  44. ISSS (1976) Acid soils of India: their genesis, characteristics and management. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  45. ISSS (1979) Phosphorus in soils, crops and fertilizers. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  46. ISSS (1984) Nitrogen in soils, crops and fertilizers. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  47. ISSS (1991) Soil related constraints in crop production. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  48. ISSS (1994) Soil management for sustainable agriculture in dryland areas. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  49. ISSS (1996) Soil management in relation to land degradation and environment. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  50. ISSS (1997) Sustainable soil productivity under rice-wheat system. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  51. ISSS (1998) Soil organic matter and organic residue management for sustainable productivity. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  52. Iyer SS, Pande RK (1954) A statistical study of the long term NPK experiment at Shahjahanpur. In: Proceedings of 2nd biennial conference of sugarcane research and development workers, Part II, pp 479–486Google Scholar
  53. Jameson DR (1852) On the physical aspect of Punjab: its agriculture and botony. J Agric Hortic Soc 8:132–138Google Scholar
  54. Jeevan Rao K, Shantaram MV (1999) Potentially toxic elements in soils treated with urban solid wastes. Indian J Environ Health 40(4):364–368Google Scholar
  55. Jenny H (1961) Reflections on the acidity merry-go-round. Soil Sci Soc Am J 25:428–432Google Scholar
  56. Jenny H, Raychaudhuri SP (1960) Effect of climate and cultivation on nitrogen and organic matter reserves in Indian soils. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–127Google Scholar
  57. Kadke JR (1965) Hastening decomposition of incorporated green manure. Indian J Agron 10:443–446Google Scholar
  58. Kalamkar RJ, Singh S (1935) A statistical examination of yield of wheat at the Kanpur Agricultural College farm. Indian J Agric Sci 5:346Google Scholar
  59. Kalidurai M, Kannaiyan S (1989) Effect of Sesbania rostrata on N uptake and yield of upland rice. J Agron Crop Sci 163:284–288Google Scholar
  60. Kanitkar NV, Surur SS, Gokhale DN (1960) Dryfarming research in India. ICAR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  61. Kanwar JS (1982) Managing soil resources to meet the challenges to mankind: presidential address. In: 12th international congress on soil science, New Delhi, India, 8–16 Feb, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  62. Kanwar JS, Bhumbla DR (1957) Reclamation of alkaline and saline soils of the Punjab. Report of Indian Council of Agricultural Research SchemeGoogle Scholar
  63. Kanwar JS, Grewal JS (1960) Phosphate fixation in Punjab soils. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 8:211–218Google Scholar
  64. Kanwar JS, Grewal JS (1974) A review—phosphorus fixation in Indian soils. ICAR technical bulletin (Agric) No. 29. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  65. Kanwar JS, Randhawa NS (1967) Micronutrient research in soils and plants in India: a review. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  66. Katyal JC, Randhawa NS (1983) Micronutrients. FAO fertilizer and plant nutrition bulletin 7. Rome, p 80Google Scholar
  67. Kenoyer JM (1995) Interaction systems, specialized crafts and culture change: the Indus valley tradition and the Indo-Gangetic tradition in south Asia. In: The indo-aryans of ancient South Asia: language, material culture and ethnicity, pp 213–257Google Scholar
  68. Khamparia RS, Singh MV, Sharma BL, Kulhare PS, Sharma GD (2010) Four decades (1970–2010) of research on micro- and secondary- nutrients and pollutant elements in crops and soils of Madhya Pradesh. ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, pp 1–113Google Scholar
  69. Krishna KR (2002) Soil fertility and crop production. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  70. Krupenikov IA (1992) History of soil science, from its inception to the present. Amerind Publishing Co., New Delhi, India, p 352Google Scholar
  71. Lal R (2007a) Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming. Soil Till Res 93:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lal R (2007b) Ancient history of agriculture and the plow. IUSS Comm Hist Philos Sociol Soil Sci Newsl 14:27–30Google Scholar
  73. Lasker S, Dadhwal KS (1981) Annual report. ICAR Research Complex, Shillong (Tripura Centre)Google Scholar
  74. Le Riche NH (1968) Metal contamination of soil in the Woburn Market Garden experiment resulting from the application of sewage sludge. J Agric Sci 71:205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Leather JW (1900) Land records and agriculture, North-West Provinces, and Oudh. Bull no. 9Google Scholar
  76. Maiti PS, Sah KD, Gupta SK, Banerjee SK (1992) Evaluation of sewage sludge as source of irrigation and manure. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 40:168–172Google Scholar
  77. Maji AK, Reddy GO, Sarkar D (2010) Degraded and wastelands of India: status and spatial distribution. Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 1–167Google Scholar
  78. Majumdar GP (1935) Upavana vinoda. Indian popular science series No. l. Indian Research Institute PublicationGoogle Scholar
  79. Mandal SC, Das SK, Mukherjee HN (1955) Lime requirement of an acid sandy soil. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 3:71–75Google Scholar
  80. Mandal SC, Sinha H, Prasad CR, Ali MA (1966) Studies on liming of acid red loam soils. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 14:127–131Google Scholar
  81. Manna MC, Sahu A, Singh AB, SubbaRao A, Khanna SS (2014) Quality of compost production from solid urban waste for enhancing crop productivity. Research bulletin No. 02/IISS/2014. ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  82. Manna MC, Sahu A, Patra AK, Khanna SS, Chaudhari SK, Sikka AK (2015) Rapid composting technique-ways to enhance soil organic carbon, productivity and soil health. ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  83. Meelu OP, Singh Y, Bijay-Singh (1994) Green manuring for soil productivity improvement. World roil resources reports 76. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, pp 1–123Google Scholar
  84. Mengel K, Uhlenbecker K (1993) Determination of available interlayer potassium and its uptake by ryegrass. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:761–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mishra BB (1977) Possibility of pyrite to use in soil in monsoon to reclaim its alkalinity. Food Farm Agric 9:136–137Google Scholar
  86. Mishra BB (2015) Soil classification: issues and opportunities for Indian system. The 26th Dr. S.P. Raychaudhuri memorial lecture, 19th October, 2015, ICAR-National Bureau Soil Survey & Land Use Planning, Nagpur. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 63(Supplement):S41–S52Google Scholar
  87. Mishra BB (2016) Indian system of soil classification: a way forward. Agric Res Technol Open Access J 3(2):555–606.  https://doi.org/10.19080/ARTOAJ.2016.03.555606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mishra BB, Ghosh SK (1995) Characterization of soils derived from mica rich parent materials in two toposequences. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 43:92–98Google Scholar
  89. Mishra BB, Ghosh SK, Sachdev P, Sachdev MS, Deb DL, Arora RP (1992) Self diffusion coefficient of 86Rb in mica-rich soils. Curr Sci 63:681–682Google Scholar
  90. Mishra BB, Choudhary CD, Singh NK, Mall J, Singh VN (1994) Fluvisol as a proposed order in soil taxonomy for active flood plain soils. In: Transactions of XVth world congress of soil science, 6B, Acapulco, Mexico, pp 55–56Google Scholar
  91. Mishra BB, Ghosh SK, Ghosh G (1995a) Studies on potassium in soils derived from mica-rich parent materials of Bihar: I. Forms, distribution and fixation of potassium in soils. J Potassium Res 11:249–256Google Scholar
  92. Mishra BB, Ghosh SK, Ghosh G (1995b) Studies on potassium in soils derived from mica-rich parent materials of Bihar: II. Quantity—intensity relationship of potassium. J Potassium Res 11:257–261Google Scholar
  93. Mishra BB, Ghosh SK, Ghosh G (1995c) Studies on potassium in soils derived from mica-rich parent materials of Bihar: III. Potassium release from mica species using chemical extractants. J Potassium Res 11:262–270Google Scholar
  94. Mishra BB, Mall J, Choudhary J, Singh RA (2001) Nutrient mining in different agro-climatic zones of Bihar. Fertil News 46(11):21–43Google Scholar
  95. Misra UK, Satapathy S, Panda N (1989) Characterization of some acid soils of Orissa: I—nature of soil acidity. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 37(1):22–28Google Scholar
  96. Moreland WH, Tamhane UA (1901) Reh. Agric Ledger 13:416–463Google Scholar
  97. Mukherjee MK (1943) The role of sesquioxide in the fixation of phosphate. Bull Indian Soc Soil Sci 5:25–26Google Scholar
  98. Murthy RS, Pandey S (1983) Soil map of India (1:6.3 m). National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning, ICAR, NagpurGoogle Scholar
  99. Mutatkar VK (1985) Prospects of organo-inorganic fertilizers. Fertil News 12:60–67Google Scholar
  100. Narayana DV (1993) Soil and water conservation research in India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, ICAR, KAB, Pusa, New Delhi, pp 1–454Google Scholar
  101. Narayana DV, Babu R (1983) Estimation of soil erosion in India. J Irrig Drain Eng 109(4):419–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Painuli DK, Yadav RP (1998) Tillage requirements of Indian soils. In: 50 years of natural resource management research, pp 245–262Google Scholar
  103. Palaniappan SP (1992) Green manuring: nutrient potentials and management. In: Tandon HLS (ed) Fertilizers, organic manures, recyclable wastes and biofertilizers. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi, pp 52–71Google Scholar
  104. Palaniappan SP, Siddeswaran K, Srinivasalu Reddy D (1990) Evaluation of green manures for the sustainable rice farming systems. In: International symposium on natural resource management for sustainable agriculture, New Delhi, p 220Google Scholar
  105. Panda N (1987) Acid soils of Eastern India—their chemistry and management. Directorate of Agriculture and Food Production, Orissa, Bhubaneswar, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  106. Panwar NR, Saha JK, Adikari T, Kundu S, Biswas AK, Rathore A, Ramana S, Srivastava S, SubbaRao A (2010). Soil and water pollution India: some case studies. IISS Technical Bulletin, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, pp 1–40Google Scholar
  107. Parker FW, Nelson WL, Winter E, Miller IE (1951) The broad interpretation of soil test informations. Agron J 43:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Patel DK, Vishwanath D (1946) Comparative studies on Indian soils VI. Phosphate fixation capacities of soils. Indian J Agric Sci 16:428–434Google Scholar
  109. Patwardhan GK, Kadrekar SB, Arakeri HR (1956) Role of compost in sugarcane culture. In: Proceedings of 9th Congress International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, India, 1, pp 150–156Google Scholar
  110. Pradhan HR, Khera MS (1976) Lime needs of soils of Sikkim based upon exchangeable aluminum test. Bull Indian Soc Soil Sci 11:291–299Google Scholar
  111. Prasad RN, Dhawal RS, Munna Ram (1982) J Res Assam Agric Univ 313:131Google Scholar
  112. Ramamoorthy B, Narsimhan RL, Dinesh RS (1967) Fertilizer application for specific yield targets of sonora-64. Indian Farm 25(5):43Google Scholar
  113. Ramamurthy B, Bajaj JC (1969) Soil fertility map of India. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  114. Randhawa NS (1979) A history of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (1929–1979). Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  115. Rao DLN, Patra AK (2009) Soil microbial diversity and sustainable agriculture. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 57(4):513–530Google Scholar
  116. Raychaudhari SP, Aggarwal RR, Datta Biswas NR, Gupta SP, Thomas PR (1963) Soils of India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  117. Raychaudhuri SP, Mukherjee MK (1941) Studies on Indian red soils II. Fixation of phosphates. Indian J Agric Sci 11:205–209Google Scholar
  118. Raychaudhuri SP, Kaw RK, Raghavan D (1964) Agriculture in ancient IndiaGoogle Scholar
  119. Raychaudhury SP (1984) Development of soil productivity in ancient and medieval India. Soil Science in India, Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, India, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  120. Renfrew (1996) Language families and the spread of farming. In: Harris DR (ed) The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia, pp 70–92Google Scholar
  121. Sanyal SK (ed) (1997) 62nd annual convention & national seminar on developments in soil science, Oct 18–21 1997. Univerity College of Agriculture, Calcutta Unviersity, West Bengal, India, pp 1–73Google Scholar
  122. Schokalskaya ZJ (1932) Contribution to the knowledge of Soils Asia. 2Google Scholar
  123. Sekhon GS, Brar MS, SubbaRao A (1992) Potassium in some benchmark soils of India. Potash Research Institute of India, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, pp 1–82Google Scholar
  124. Sharma DK, Chaudhuri SK (2012) Agronomic research in salt affected soils of India: an overview. Indian J Agron 37(3rd IAC special issue):175–185Google Scholar
  125. Shukla AK, Behera SK (2011) Zinc management in Indian agriculture: past, present and future. Indian J Fertil 7(10):14–33Google Scholar
  126. Shukla AK, Behera SK, SubbaRao A, Singh AK (2012) State-wise micro and secondary nutrients recommendation for different crops and cropping systems. Research bulletin No. 1/2012. In: All India coordinated research project of micro and secondary nutrients and pollutant elements in soils and plants. IISS, Bhopal, pp 1–77Google Scholar
  127. Singh MV, Behera SK (2011) All India coordinated research project of micro- and secondary-nutrients and pollutant elements in soils and plants—a profile. Research bulletin No. 10. ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, pp 1–57Google Scholar
  128. Singh M (ed) (2004) Proceedings of the national seminar on standards and technology for rural/urban compost held at Indian Society of Soil Science, Bhopal during 17 Jan 2004Google Scholar
  129. Singh NT, Hothi BS, Chhibha IM, Thind SS (1978) Indian Farm 28:7Google Scholar
  130. Singh Y, Khind CS, Singh B (1991) Efficient management of leguminous green manures in wetland rice. Adv Agron 45:135–189Google Scholar
  131. Singh G, Babu R, Narain P, Bhushan LS, Abrol IP (1992) Soil erosion rates in India. J Soil Water Conserv 47(1):97–99Google Scholar
  132. Singh MV, Wanjari RH, Adhikari T (2004) Nutrient dynamics, crop productivity and sustainability under long-term fertilizer experiments in India. ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, pp 1–119Google Scholar
  133. Singh M, Wanjari RH (2013) Annual report—2012–13. All India coordinated research project on longterm fertilizer experiments to study changes in soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. AICRP—LTFE, Indian Institute of Soil Science (ICAR), Nabibagh, Bhopal, pp 1–142Google Scholar
  134. Srinivasarao C, Rupa TR, SubbaRao A, Singh SP, Bansal SK (2006) Kinetics of nonexchangeable potassium release from important benchmark soils of India: effects of mineralogy, soil depth and extraction media. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 36(3, 4):1–19Google Scholar
  135. Stewart AB (1947) Report on soil fertility investigations in India with special reference to manuring. Army Press, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  136. SubbaRao A, Panwar N (2010) Soil pollution: Indian scenario. In: Kundu et al (eds) Souvenir 75th annual convention of Indian Society of Soil Science, Bhopal during 14–17 Nov 2010, pp 47–66Google Scholar
  137. SubbaRao A, Reddy KS (2010) Indian Institute of Soil Science at a glance. In: Kundu et al (eds) Souvenir 75th annual convention of Indian Society of Soil Science, Bhopal during 14–17 Nov 2010, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  138. SubbaRao A, Srivastava S (2005) Retrospect and prospect of soil testing service in India. In: Anonymous (ed) Invited papers of the national seminar on soil testing, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, 21–22 Jan 2005, pp 1–64Google Scholar
  139. SubbaRao A, SeshaSai MVR, Pal SK (1993) Non-exchanageable potassium reserves and their categorization in some soils of India. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 41:667–673Google Scholar
  140. SubbaRao A, Biswas AK, Sammi Reddy K, Hati KM, Ramana S (eds) (2009) IISS: two decades of soil research. Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, pp 1–132Google Scholar
  141. SubbaRao A, Singh AB, Wanjari RH, Ramesh K, VassandaCoumar M, Shinogi KC (2014) Glimpses of IISS contribution in technology generation and dissemination. Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, pp 1–124Google Scholar
  142. SubbaRao A, Srivastava S, Ganeshamurty AN (2015) Phosphorus supply may dictate food security prospects in India. Curr Sci 108(7):1253–1261Google Scholar
  143. Swarup A, SrinivasaRao C (1999) Current status of crop responses to nutrients. Experiences from all India coordinated research project on long-term fertilizer experiments. Fertil News 44(4):27–43Google Scholar
  144. Subba Rao A, Srinivasarao Ch, Srivastava S (1996) Potassium status and crop response to potassium on the soils of agroecological regions of India. IPI Research Topics No. 20, International Potash Institute, Horgen, Switzerland, pp 1–185Google Scholar
  145. Takkar PN, Chhibba IM, Mehta SK (1989) Twenty years of co-ordinated research on micronutrients in soils and plants (1967–87), IISS bulletin I. ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, pp 1–314Google Scholar
  146. Talati RR (1947) Field experiments on the reclamation of salt-affected lands in Baramati of Bombay, Deccan. Indian J Agric Sci 17:153–174Google Scholar
  147. Tandon HLS (1987) Phosphorus research and agricultural production in India. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi, India, pp 1–160Google Scholar
  148. Tandon HLS (1992) Fertilizers, organic manures, recyclable wastes and biofertilizers. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi, pp 1–148Google Scholar
  149. Thurston E (1913) The Madras Presidency, with Mysore, Coorg and the associated states, provincial geographies of India. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 6 Apr 2010Google Scholar
  150. Tiwari KN, Sharma DN, Tripathi SK (1989) Salt affected soils of Uttar Pradesh, their reclamation and management. CS Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, India, p 34Google Scholar
  151. Upadhyay R, Mishra BB (1993) Evaluation of waste mica as a source of potassic fertilizer and changes in the forms of soil potassium due to mica incorporation. J Potassium Res 9:325–332Google Scholar
  152. Upadhyay R, Mishra BB (1994) Release of potassium from mica as affected by different factors. J Potassium Res 10:49–55Google Scholar
  153. Upadhyay R, Mishra BB (1997) Potassium release from mica by some chemical and biological treatments. J Potassium Res 13:101–104Google Scholar
  154. Vishwanath B, Ukil AC (1943) Soil map of India. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  155. Vision 2050 (2015a) Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (Indian Council of Agricultural Research). Director, Dehradun UttarakhandGoogle Scholar
  156. Vision 2050 (2015b) Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, (Indian Council of Agricultural Research). Director, Karnal, Haryana, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  157. Wani SP, McGill WB, Haugen-Kozyra KL, Robertson JA, Thurston JJ (1994) Improved soil quality and barley yields with fababeans, manure, forages and crop rotation on a gray luvisol. Can J Soil Sci 74:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Woodruff CM (1948) Testing soils for lime requirement by means of a buffered solution and the glass electrode. Soil Sci 66(1):53–64Google Scholar
  159. Yadav JSP, Agarwal RR (1959) Dynamics of soil changes in reclamation of saline alkali soils of Indo-Gangetic alluvium. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 7:317–322Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil ScienceBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations