Advertisement

Introduction

  • Bipin B. MishraEmail author
Chapter
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)

Abstract

India constitutes a part of South Asian Subcontinent and is situated between the latitudes of 08° 04′ and 37° 06′ N and longitudes of 68° 07′ and extended to 87° 25′ E in the north of equator with a geographical area of 329 M ha (million hectare). In three broad physiographic regions, viz. Peninsula (a triangular plateau in the Deccan and south of the Vindhyayan), Extra Peninsula (a mountain region of the Himalayas) and Indo-Gangetic plain followed by distinct geological setup and climatic arrangement, India is gifted to have diversified types of soil groups within specific agroclimatic regions, viz. alluvial soils, black soils, red soils, laterite and lateritic soils, forest and mountain soils, arid and desert soils, acid soils, salt-affected soils, and peaty and marshy soils.

Indian soils have rich history with most significant contributions to the lifestyle, culture, civilization and overall livelihood besides supporting for survival and nourishment of south Asian population. The continued pressing demand for land and soil due to increasing population has made these soils highly threatened and scarce resource as a result of soil health deterioration, soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, nutrient mining, emergence of heavy metal toxicity, declining soil organic matter and impact of climate change. The chapter highlights on generalized but conceptual action plan for successful implementation of land use planning on the ground-based interventions as covered in subsequent chapters. In addition, education and research in soil science deserve strengthening through a breakthrough in the National Agricultural Research and Education System (NARES). Soils by and large possess ample scope for improvement in order to meet the growing demands of the nation. This chapter is thus a generalized overview on vision, mission and goal of soil resources towards Second Green Revolution in the twenty-first century.

Keywords

Indian soils Challenges Soil evaluation Education Land use planning Second Green Revolution 

References

  1. Abrol IP, Bhumbla DR (1971) Saline and alkali soils in India: their occurrence and management. World soil resources report 41. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrol IP, Sehgal J (1972) Degraded lands and their rehabilitation in India. In: Greenland DJ, Szaboles I (eds) Soil resilience and sustainable land use. CAB International, UK, pp 129–144Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal RR, Yadav JSP (1954) Saline and alkali soils of the Indo-Gangetic alluvium in Uttar Pradesh. J Soil Sci 5:300–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Air Ministry (1936) British rainfall. London Meteorological Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Balvanshi A, Tiwari HL (2014) A comprehensive review of runoff estimation by the curve number method. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol 3:17480–17485Google Scholar
  6. Bandyopadhyay PK, Saha S, Mani PK, Mandal B (2010) Effect of organic inputs on aggregate associated organic carbon concentration under long-term rice–wheat cropping system. Geoderma 154:379–386.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.11.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BAU (2016) Soil and land use report on silt dominant sand dunes in Supaul district of Bihar 2016. Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, BhagalpurGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhaduri D, Pal S, Purakayastha TJ, Chakraborty K, Yadav RS, Akhtar MS (2015) Soil quality and plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Sustainable agriculture reviews. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, Germany, pp 307–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhattacharyya T, Sarkar D, Sehgal J, Velaytham M, Gajbhiye KS, Nagar AP, Nimkhedkar SS (2009) Soil taxonomic database of India and the states (1:250,000 scale), vol 143. NBSS&LUP Publication, p. 266Google Scholar
  10. Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Mandal C, Chandran C, Ray SK, Sarkar D, Velmourougane K, Srivastava A, Sidhu GS, Singh RS, Sahoo AK, Dutta D, Nair KM, Srivastava R, Tiwary P, Nagar AP, Nimkhedkar SS (2013) Soils of India: historical perspective, classification and recent advances. Curr Sci 104(10):1308–1323Google Scholar
  11. Bhumbla DR, Khare A (1984) Estimate of wastelands in India. Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. Biswas PP, Sharma PD (2008) A new approach for estimating fertiliser response ratio—the Indian scenario. Indian J Fertil 4:59–62Google Scholar
  13. Buchanan F (1807) A journey from Malabar through the countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar. Geol Mag 2:436–460Google Scholar
  14. Chander G, Wani SP, Kanwar LS, Prasad JK, Pal CK, Pal DK, Mathur TP (2013) Balanced and integrated nutrient management for enhanced and economic food production: case study from rainfed semi-arid tropics in India. Arch Agron Soil Sci 59(12):1643–1658.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2012.761336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chhonkar PK (2008) Organic farming and its relevance in India. In: Tarafdar JC, Tripathi KP, Mahesh K (eds) Organic agriculture. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India, pp 5–33Google Scholar
  16. Choudhary BC, Prasad SN, Mohan K, Mishra BB (2009) 25 years perspective plan of land use planning of Bihar, 2000–2025. Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, BiharGoogle Scholar
  17. Dokuchaev VV (1883) Russian chernozems (RusskiiChernozems). Israel Prog Sci Trans, Jerusalem (1967) (trans from Russian: Kaner N). Available form U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, VAGoogle Scholar
  18. FAO (1976) A framework for land evaluation. Soils Bull 32Google Scholar
  19. FAO (1983) Land evaluation of rainfed agriculture. Soil Bull 52Google Scholar
  20. Gaétan C, Stephen TS, James LO, Karol S, Pawel S (2012) Earthing: health implications of reconnecting the human body to the earth’s surface electrons. J Environ Public Health (Article ID 291541). http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/291541
  21. Gawande SP, Joshi OP, Singh P (1980) The genesis and classification of saline-sodic soils of the Bevar distributor command area in the Etah district, Uttar Pradesh, India. In: Proceedings international symposium on salt affected soils. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, 18–21 Feb 1980, pp 102–109Google Scholar
  22. GoI (2011) Census of India 2011, population totals paper 1 of 2011, India series 1. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Govt. of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  23. GoI (2015) Land use statistics at a glance 2003–04 to 2012–13. Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, New Delhi, May 2015Google Scholar
  24. Hilgard EW (1892) A report on the relations of soil to climate. Weather Bull 3:1–59Google Scholar
  25. IISS (2018) Annual report 2017–18. ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, BhopalGoogle Scholar
  26. IISS, Vision 2030 (2009) Document, published by Director, ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, India, pp 1–41Google Scholar
  27. IMD (2014) Annual climate summary. Indian Meteorological Department, National Climate Centre, PuneGoogle Scholar
  28. IMD (2015) Annual climate summary. Indian Meteorological Department, National Climate Centre, PuneGoogle Scholar
  29. Jha PP (1972) Soils of Bihar. In: Soils of India. The Fertiliser Association of India Publication, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  30. Jha PP, Cline MG (1963) Morphology and genesis of a sol brun acide with fragipan in uniform silty material. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 27:339–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Karale RL, Bisdam EBA, Jongerus A (1974) Micromorphological studies on diagnostic subsurface horizons of some alluvial soils of Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 22:70–76Google Scholar
  32. Katyal JC (2015) Withering soil science education-revival and resurgence boosters. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 63(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Katyal JC, Rao NH, Reddy MN (2001) Critical aspects of organic matter management in the tropics: the example of India. In: Martius C, Tiessen H, Vlek PLG (eds) Managing organic matter in tropical soils: scope and limitations. Proceedings of a workshop organized by the Center for Development Research at the University of Bonn (ZEF Bonn), Germany. Springer, Netherlands, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 07–10 June 1999, pp 77–88Google Scholar
  34. Kaur K, Kapoor KK, Gupta AP (2005) Impact of organic manures with and without mineral fertilizers on soil chemical and biological properties under tropical conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kesavan PC, Swaminathan MS (2008) Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries. Philos Trans Roy Soc B 363:877–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Koshy J (2018) India among nations that face grave danger to soil biodiversity: world wide fund for nature. The Hindu, New Delhi, 31 Oct 2018Google Scholar
  37. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:1623–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laxminarayana KP (2006) Effect of integrated use of inorganic, biological and organic manures on rice productivity and soil fertility in ultisols of Mizoram. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 54:213–220Google Scholar
  39. Lingade SR, Srivastava R, Prasad J, Saxena RK (2008) Occurrence of sodic vertisols in Nagpur district, Maharashtra. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 56:231–232Google Scholar
  40. Mandal C, Mandal DK, Srinivas CV, Sehgal J, Velayutham M (1999) Soil climatic database for crop planning in India. Tech Bull no 53. NBSS and LUP, 1014 ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Mandal AK, Sharma RC, Singh G, Dagar JC (2010) Computerized database of salt-affected soils in India. Technical bulletin. CSSRI, Karnal, p 28Google Scholar
  42. Mishra BB (2015) Soil based integrated management inputs for flood and flood plain soils of Bihar, India. EC Agric 1.2(2015):109–123Google Scholar
  43. Mishra BB (2016) Indian system of soil classification: a way forward. Agric Res Technol Open Access J 3(2):555606.  https://doi.org/10.19080/artoaj.2016.03.555606
  44. Mishra BB (2017) Land economics vs land use planning. In: Sheraz Mahdi S, Kumar S, Dhawan AK (eds) Proceedings national conference on climate change & agricultural production: adapting crops to climate variability and uncertainty. Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, 6–8 Apr 2017, pp 42–50Google Scholar
  45. Mishra BB, Roy R (2015) Soil science vs science for medicine. EC Agric 2.5(2015):454–461Google Scholar
  46. Mishra BB, Choudhary CD, Singh NK, Mall J, Singh VN (1994) “Fluvisols” as a proposed Order in soil taxonomy for active flood plain soils. In: Transactions XVth world congress of soil science, Acapulco, Mexico, vol 6B, pp 55–56Google Scholar
  47. Mondal S, Singh RD, Patra AK, Dwivedi BS (2015) Changes in soil quality in response to short-term application of municipal sewage sludge in a typic haplustept under cowpea-wheat cropping system. Environ Nanotechnol Monit Manage 4:37–41Google Scholar
  48. Muralidharudu Y, Subba Rao A, Sammi Reddy K (eds) (2012) District-wise soil test based fertilizer and manure recommendations for balanced nutrition of crops. Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, pp 1–270Google Scholar
  49. Murthy RS, Hirekerur LR, Deshpande SB, Venkata Rao BV, Shankaranarayana HS (eds) (1982) Benchmark soils of India: morphology, characteristics and classification for resource management. NBSS & LUP, Nagpur, 374 pGoogle Scholar
  50. NAAS (2010) Degraded and wastelands of India; status and spatial distribution. Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture, ICAR, Pusa, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  51. National Commission on Agriculture (1976) Final report - National Commission of Agriculture (PDF). Indian Government, 1976, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  52. Naidu LGK, Hunsigi G (2001) Application and validation of FAO-framework and soil potential ratings for land suitability evaluation of sugarcane soils of Karnataka. Agropedology 11:91–100Google Scholar
  53. Naidu LGK, Ramamurthy V, Challa O, Velayutham M (2017) Land evaluation for sustainable agriculture. Brillion Publishing Co., New Delhi, p 356Google Scholar
  54. Nandgude SB, Jadhav GS, Shinde SS, Mahale DM, Bhattacharyya T, Wandre SS (2017) Computation of runoff by SCS-CN method from microwatersheds of Urmodi basin in Maharashtra state using RS and GIS. Agropedology 27:145–152Google Scholar
  55. Natarajan A, Krishnan P, Velayutham M, Gajbhiye KS (2002) Land resources of Kudangulam, Vijayapatti and Erukkandurai villages, Radhapuram Taluk, Tirunelveli district, methodology at 1:10,000 scale using cadastral map as base map. NBSS&LUP Pub no 36, p 277Google Scholar
  56. NRSA (1985) Wasteland mapping of India using landsat false colour composite on 1.1 million scale. Project report, National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Department of Space, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  57. Nogiya M, Verma TP, Moharana PC, Singh RS, Tailor BL, Singh R, Meena RL, Kumar S, Singh SK (2017) Influence of landform on the spatial variability of soil fertility in central state farm, Jetsar, Sri Ganganagar district of Rajasthan. Agropedology 27(2):125–130Google Scholar
  58. Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Deshpande SB, Sharma VAK, Velayutham M (2000) Significance of minerals in soil environment of India. NBSS review series 1. NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, p 19Google Scholar
  59. Prasad R, Gangaiah B, Aipe KC (1999) Effect of crop residue management in rice-wheat cropping system on growth and yield of crops and on soil fertility. Exp Agric 35:427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Press Trust of India (PTI) (2017) Cultivable land in India shrinking. The Hindu Business Line, 11 Nov 2017Google Scholar
  61. Ramdas LA (1960) Crops and weather in India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, p 127Google Scholar
  62. Rattan RK (2013) Soil, science and society. Presidential address delivered at the 78th annual convention of the Indian society of soil science, CAZRI, JodhpurGoogle Scholar
  63. Raychaudhuri SP, Govindarajan SV (1971) Soil genesis and classification. In: Review of soil research in India. Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp 107–135Google Scholar
  64. Reddy RS, Naidu LGK, Srinivas S, Niranjana KV, Ramesh M, Harindranath CS, Shivaprasad CR, Thayalan S (2001) Identification and categorization of agricultural drought-prone zones of Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 11:101–109Google Scholar
  65. Riquier J, Bramao DL, Cornet J (1970) A new system of soil appraisal in terms of actual and potential productivity (first approximation). In: FAO, soil resources, development and conservation service, land and water development division. Approaches to land classification. Soil Bull 22. FAO, Rome, 120 ppGoogle Scholar
  66. Sahoo AK, Chattopadhyay T, Singh RS, Shyampura RL (2003) Characterization of soils and vertical distribution of available micronutrients under different landforms of Malwa plateau, Rajasthan. Indian Agric 47:217–223Google Scholar
  67. Sanyal SK (2015) Quality soil science education in India. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 63(1):14–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sehgal JL (1989) Soil resources map of India (1:1 M Scale): meeting the challenges. J Soil Surv Land Eval (UK) 7(2):123–125Google Scholar
  69. Sehgal J (1995) Land resources appraisal for land use planning to meet the challenges of 21st century. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 43(4):504–528Google Scholar
  70. Sehgal JL (2003) Soil classification. In: Fundamentals of soil science. Indian Society of Soil Science, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  71. Sehgal J, Abrol IP (1994) Soil degradation in India: status and impact. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, Oxford, and IBH Publishing Co., PVI, Ltd., p 80Google Scholar
  72. Sehgal J, Mandal DK, Mandal C, Vadivelu S (1992) Agro-ecological regions of India, 2nd edn. Tech Bull no 24, NBSS and LUP, 130 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. Sehgal J, Mandal DK, Mandal C (1995) Agro-ecological sub-regions of India (Map). NBSS and LUP, NagpurGoogle Scholar
  74. Sharma VP (2015) Dynamics of land use competition in India: perceptions and realities. W.P. no 2015-06-02, working paper series IIMA, June 2015. Research and Publications, Indian Institute of Management, AhmadabadGoogle Scholar
  75. Sharma DK, Chaudhari SK (2012) Agronomic research in salt affected soils of India: an overview. Indian J Agron 57(3rd IAC Special Issue):175–185Google Scholar
  76. Sharma JP, Raychoudhury C (1988) Soil-landform relationship in a basaltic terrain. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 36:755–760Google Scholar
  77. Sharma JP, Landey RJ, Kalbande AR, Mandal C (2001) Characteristics and classification of soils of Kathiawar region of Gujarat as influenced by topography. Agropedology 11:83–90Google Scholar
  78. Shivarajasingham S, Alexander LT, Cady JG, Cline MG (1962) Laterite. Adv Agron 14:1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shyampura RL, Krishna NDR, Gopal Ram, Giri JD (1992) Genesis and characterization of the soils across Ghaggar flood plain in Rajasthan. Ann Arid Zone 3:1199–1204Google Scholar
  80. Sihi D, Dari B, Sharma DK, Pathak H, Lata N, Sharma OP (2017) Evaluation of soil health in organic vs. conventional farming of basmati rice in North India. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 180:389–406.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201700128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Soil Survey Staff (1999) Soil taxonomy, 2nd edn. USDA-SCS Publication, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  82. Somasundaram J, Reeves SH, Wang WJ, Heenan MA, Dalal RC (2017) Impact of 47 years of no-tillage and stubble retention on soil aggregation and carbon distribution in a vertisol. Land Degrad Dev.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. SubbaRao A (2009) Implications of soil fertility to meet the future demands: the Indian scenario. In: Future planning for soils in India. Proceedings IPI-OUAT-IPNI international symposium on role and benefits of potassium in improving AT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Nutrient management for food production, quality and reduced environmental damage, 5–7 Nov 2009, OUGoogle Scholar
  84. Subrahmanyam VP (1964) Climatic water balance of Indian arid zone. In: Proceedings of symposium on problems of Indian arid zone, Jodhpur, pp 405–411Google Scholar
  85. Sunanda Biswas (2016) Soil resilience: a new approach to recover degraded soil. Biotech articles; views 1333; www.biotecharticles.com/Agriculture-Article/Soil
  86. Velayutham M (2012) National soil information system (NASIS) and land resource mapping for perspective land use planning and pragmatic farm level planning. In: 4th Dr. S. V. Govindarajan memorial lecture. Madras Agric J 99(4–6):147–154. http://sites.google.com/site/majmasu/archive/99-4-6
  87. Velayutham M, Mandal DK, Mandal C, Sehgal J (1999) Agro-ecological subregions of india for planning and development. NBSS and LUP, Publ no 35, 372 ppGoogle Scholar
  88. von Liebig J (1840) Chemistry in its application to agriculture and physiology. Playfaeir, Taylor and Waton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Yadav SS, Jagdish P, Gaikwad ST, Thyalan S (1998) Landform-soil relationship and its impact on soil properties. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 46:332–335Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bihar Agricultural UniversityBhagalpurIndia
  2. 2.Pedology and Land Use PlanningSchool of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya UniversityDire DawaEthiopia
  3. 3.International Union of Soil SciencesViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations