Advertisement

Ancillary Benefits of Adaptation: An Overview

  • Elisa Sainz de MurietaEmail author
Chapter
  • 158 Downloads
Part of the Springer Climate book series (SPCL)

Abstract

Climate policies often provide benefits that are additional to the policy’s primary goal. Ancillary benefits have been extensively analysed for climate mitigation, while less attention has been paid to the co-benefits of adaptation. The aim of this chapter is to present an overview of the potential ancillary benefits of adaptation policies, from an economic, social and environmental perspective. Economic co-benefits of adaptation may arise from reducing the vulnerability to current climate variability, reducing background risk or creating the space for developing new products and services. From a social perspective, the ancillary benefits of adaptation have focused to a great extent on health co-benefits, and from an environmental point of view, these arise mainly from ecosystem-related adaptation approaches. Co-benefits or ancillary benefits of climate policies can be important in magnitude and may play a significant role in fostering climate policies and increasing their acceptability. However, there is little evidence of the extent to which ancillary benefits are being accounted for when planning for adaptation. If and how co-benefits might be integrated into climate adaptation design would be an interesting and policy-relevant question to address in future research.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the Basque Government through the BERC 2018–2021 programme and by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICINN) through BC3’s María de Maeztu excellence accreditation MDM-2017-0714. E. Sainz de Murieta acknowledges funding from the Basque Government (grant no. POS_2018_2_0027).

References

  1. Aaheim A, Garcia JH (2014) Synergies between adaptation and mitigation and the complexity of REDD+. In: Markandya A, Galarraga I, Sainz de Murieta E (eds) Routledge handbook of the economics of climate change adaptation, Routledge international handbooks. Routledge, Oxon, pp 79–96Google Scholar
  2. Adger WN (2001) Scales of governance and environmental justice for adaptation and mitigation of climate change. J Int Dev 13:921–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adger WN (2010) Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. In: Voss M (ed) Der Klimawandel: Sozialwissenschaftliche Perspektiven. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden, pp 327–345.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-92258-4_19 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adger WN, Arnell NW, Tompkins EL (2005) Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Glob Environ Chang 15:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahsan DA (2014) Does natural disaster influence people’s risk preference and trust? An experiment from cyclone prone coast of Bangladesh. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 9:48–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aleksandrowicz L, Green R, Joy EJM, Smith P, Haines A (2016) The impacts of dietary change on greenhouse gas emissions, land use, water use, and health: a systematic review. PLoS One 11:e0165797.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165797 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altemeyer-Bartscher M, Markandya A, Rübbelke DTG (2014) International side-payments to improve global public good provision when transfers are refinanced through a tax on local and global externalities. Int Econ J 28:71–93.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10168737.2012.759986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alves A, Patiño Gómez J, Vojinovic Z, Sánchez A, Weesakul S (2018) Combining co-benefits and stakeholders perceptions into green infrastructure selection for flood risk reduction. Environments 5:29.  https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5020029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arkema KK, Griffin R, Maldonado S, Silver J, Suckale J, Guerry AD (2017) Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based protection for coastal communities: advancing protection for coastal communities. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1399:5–26.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13322 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bain PG, Milfont TL, Kashima Y, Bilewicz M, Doron G, Garðarsdóttir RB, Gouveia VV, Guan Y, Johansson L-O, Pasquali C, Corral-Verdugo V, Aragones JI, Utsugi A, Demarque C, Otto S, Park J, Soland M, Steg L, González R, Lebedeva N, Madsen OJ, Wagner C, Akotia CS, Kurz T, Saiz JL, Schultz PW, Einarsdóttir G, Saviolidis NM (2016) Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world. Nat Clim Chang 6:154–157.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2814 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnett J, O’Neill S (2010) Editorial: maladaptation. Glob Environ Chang 20:211–213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berrang-Ford L, Pearce T, Ford JD (2015) Systematic review approaches for climate change adaptation research. Reg Environ Chang 15:755–769.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-014-0708-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Browder G, Ozment S, Rehberger Bescos I, Gartner T, Lange G-M (2019) Integrating green and grey: creating next generation infrastructure. World Bank and World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. Bustamante M, Robledo-Abad C, Harper R, Mbow C, Ravindranat NH, Sperling F, Haberl H, de Siqueira Pinto A, Smith P (2014) Co-benefits, trade-offs, barriers and policies for greenhouse gas mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector. Glob Chang Biol 20:3270–3290.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12591 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cameron L, Shah M (2015) Risk-taking behavior in the wake of natural disasters. J Hum Resour 50:484–515.  https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.50.2.484 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chambwera M, Heal G, Dubeux C, Hallegatte S, Leclerc L, Markandya A, McCarl BA, Mechler R, Neumann JE (2014) Economics of adaptation. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part a: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel of climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 945–977Google Scholar
  17. Cheng JJ, Berry P (2013) Health co-benefits and risks of public health adaptation strategies to climate change: a review of current literature. Int J Public Health 58:305–311.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-012-0422-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Bruin K, Dellink RB, Ruijs A, Bolwidt L, van Buuren A, Graveland J, de Groot RS, Kuikman PJ, Reinhard S, Roetter RP, Tassone VC, Verhagen A, van Ierland EC (2009) Adapting to climate change in The Netherlands: an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives. Clim Chang 95:23–45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-009-9576-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dickinson DC, Hobbs RJ (2017) Cultural ecosystem services: characteristics, challenges and lessons for urban green space research. Ecosyst Serv 25:179–194.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Doswald N, Munroe R, Roe D, Giuliani A, Castelli I, Stephens J, Möller I, Spencer T, Vira B, Reid H (2014) Effectiveness of ecosystem-based approaches for adaptation: review of the evidence-base. Clim Dev 6:185–201.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2013.867247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dovie DBK (2019) Case for equity between Paris climate agreement’s co-benefits and adaptation. Sci Total Environ 656:732–739.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ebi KL, Berry P, Campbell-Lendrum D, Corvalan C, Guillemot J (2013) Protecting health from climate change: vulnerability and adaptation assessment. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  23. Eicher C, Kawachi I (2011) Social capital and community design. In: Dannenberg AL, Frumkin H, Jackson RJ (eds) Making healthy places: designing and building for health, well-being, and sustainability. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC, pp 117–128.  https://doi.org/10.5822/978-1-61091-036-1_8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. European Commission (2013) Green infrastructure strategy—enhancing Europe’s natural capital (no. COM(2013) 249 final). European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferreira M, Almeida M (2015) Benefits from energy related building renovation beyond costs, energy and emissions. Energy Procedia 78:2397–2402.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Forrest K, Tarroja B, Chiang F, AghaKouchak A, Samuelsen S (2018) Assessing climate change impacts on California hydropower generation and ancillary services provision. Clim Chang 151:395–412.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-018-2329-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gould S, Rudolph L (2015) Challenges and opportunities for advancing work on climate change and public health. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:15649.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121215010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haines A (2017) Health co-benefits of climate action. Lancet Planet Health 1:e4–e5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30003-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hallegatte S (2009) Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Glob Environ Chang 19:240–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hallegatte S, Bangalore M, Jouanjean M-A (2016) Avoided losses and the development dividend of resilience. In: Surminski S, Tanner T (eds) Realising the “triple dividend of resilience”. Springer, Berlin, pp 31–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harlan SL, Ruddell DM (2011) Climate change and health in cities: impacts of heat and air pollution and potential co-benefits from mitigation and adaptation. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 3:126–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2011.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hartig T, Mitchell R, de Vries S, Frumkin H (2014) Nature and health. Annu Rev Public Health 35:207–228.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. IPCC (2014) Annex II: glossary. In: Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1757–1776Google Scholar
  34. Klein RJT, Midgley BL, Preston BL, Alam M, Berkhout FGH, Dow K, Shaw MR (2014) Adaptation opportunities, constraints, and limits. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 899–943Google Scholar
  35. Kreye M, Adams D, Escobedo F (2014) The value of forest conservation for water quality protection. Forests 5:862–884.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f5050862 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kroeger T, Klemz C, Boucher T, Fisher JRB, Acosta E, Cavassani AT, Dennedy-Frank PJ, Garbossa L, Blainski E, Santos RC, Giberti S, Petry P, Shemie D, Dacol K (2019) Returns on investment in watershed conservation: application of a best practices analytical framework to the Rio Camboriú water producer program, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Sci Total Environ 657:1368–1381.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krook Riekkola A, Ahlgren EO, Söderholm P (2011) Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: the case of Sweden. Energy Policy 39:4985–4998.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.06.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lemos MC, Agrawal A (2006) Environmental governance. Annu Rev Environ Resour 31:297–325.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.31.042605.135621 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lobell DB, Baldos ULC, Hertel TW (2013) Climate adaptation as mitigation: the case of agricultural investments. Environ Res Lett 8:015012.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Longo A, Hoyos D, Markandya A (2012) Willingness to pay for ancillary benefits of climate change mitigation. Environ Resour Econ 51:119–140.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-011-9491-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Magnan AK, Ribera T (2016) Global adaptation after Paris. Science 352:1280–1282.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf5002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Magnan AK, Schipper ELF, Burkett M, Bharwani S, Burton I, Eriksen S, Gemenne F, Schaar J, Ziervogel G (2016) Addressing the risk of maladaptation to climate change: addressing the risk of maladaptation to climate change. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Chang 7:646–665.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Markandya A, Rübbelke DTG (2004) Ancillary benefits of climate policy/Sekundäre Nutzen der Klimapolitik. Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 224:488–503.  https://doi.org/10.1515/jbnst-2004-0406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Markandya A, Watkiss P (2009) Potential costs and benefits of adaptation options: a review of existing literature. UNFCCC Technical Paper. FCCC/TP/2009/2 80Google Scholar
  45. Marois DE, Mitsch WJ (2015) Coastal protection from tsunamis and cyclones provided by mangrove wetlands – a review. IntJ Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manage 11:71–83.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2014.997292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Pörtner HO, Roberts D, Skea J, Shukla PR, Pirani A, Moufouma-Okia W, Péan C, Pidcock R, Connors S, Matthews JBR, Chen Y, Zhou X, Gomis MI, Lonnoy E, Maycock T, Tignor M, Waterfield T (eds) (2018) Global warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  47. McDermott TKJ (2016) Investing in disaster risk management in an uncertain climate. In: Surminski S, Tanner T (eds) Realising the “triple dividend of resilience”. Springer, Berlin, pp 129–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McNally CG, Uchida E, Gold AJ (2011) The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems. PNAS 108:13945–13950.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1101825108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Monforti-Ferrario F, Kona A, Peduzzi E, Pernigotti D, Pisoni E (2018) The impact on air quality of energy saving measures in the major cities signatories of the covenant of mayors initiative. Environ Int 118:222–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Munang R, Thiaw I, Alverson K, Mumba M, Liu J, Rivington M (2013) Climate change and ecosystem-based adaptation: a new pragmatic approach to buffering climate change impacts. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 5:67–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2012.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. NCE (2016) The sustainable infrastructure imperative: financing for better growth and development. The New Climate Economy, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. OECD (ed) (2000) Ancillary benefits and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation, environment. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  53. OECD (2016) The economic consequences of outdoor air pollution. OECD, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ojea E (2014) Ecosystem based adaptation. In: Markandya A, Galarraga I, Sainz de Murieta E (eds) Routledge handbook of the economics of climate change adaptation (hardback) – Routledge. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Parry M, Arnell N, Berry P, Dodman D, Fankhauser S, Hope C, Kovats S, Nicholls R, Satterthwhite D, Tiffin R, Wheeler T (2009) Assessing the costs of adaptation to climate change: a review of the UNFCCC and other recent estimates. International Institute for Environment and Development and Grantham Institute for Climate Change, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. Pasgaard M, Sun Z, Müller D, Mertz O (2016) Challenges and opportunities for REDD+: a reality check from perspectives of effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Environ Sci Pol 63:161–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pearce D (2000) Policy framework for the ancillary benefits of climate change policies. In: OECD (ed) Ancillary benefits and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation, environment. OECD, Paris, pp 517–560Google Scholar
  58. Pelling M, High C (2005) Understanding adaptation: what can social capital offer assessments of adaptive capacity? Glob Environ Chang 15:308–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pittel K, Rübbelke DTG (2008) Climate policy and ancillary benefits: a survey and integration into the modelling of international negotiations on climate change. Ecol Econ 68:210–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.02.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pittock J, Hussey K, McGlennon S (2013) Australian climate, energy and water policies: conflicts and synergies. Aust Geogr 44:3–22.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00049182.2013.765345 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Preston BL, Mustelin J, Maloney MC (2015) Climate adaptation heuristics and the science/policy divide. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 20:467–497.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-013-9503-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rashidi K, Stadelmann M, Patt A (2019) Creditworthiness and climate: identifying a hidden financial co-benefit of municipal climate adaptation and mitigation policies. Energy Res Soc Sci 48:131–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2018.09.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reguero BG, Beck MW, Bresch DN, Calil J, Meliane I (2018) Comparing the cost effectiveness of nature-based and coastal adaptation: a case study from the Gulf coast of the United States. PLoS One 13:e0192132.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rezai A, Foley DK, Taylor L (2012) Global warming and economic externalities. Econ Theory 49:329–351.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00199-010-0592-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rodríguez-Entrena M, Espinosa-Goded M, Barreiro-Hurlé J (2014) The role of ancillary benefits on the value of agricultural soils carbon sequestration programmes: evidence from a latent class approach to Andalusian olive groves. Ecol Econ 99:63–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sainz de Murieta E (2016) In: University of the Basque Country (ed) Environmental and economic impacts of sea-level rise on the Basque coast (PhD dissertation), LeioaGoogle Scholar
  67. Sainz de Murieta E, Galarraga I, Markandya A (2014) An introduction to the economics of adaptation to climate change. In: Markandya A, Galarraga I, Sainz de Murieta E (eds) Routledge handbook of the economics of climate change adaptation, Routledge international handbooks. Routledge, New York, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  68. Schucht S, Colette A, Rao S, Holland M, Schöpp W, Kolp P, Klimont Z, Bessagnet B, Szopa S, Vautard R, Brignon J-M, Rouïl L (2015) Moving towards ambitious climate policies: monetised health benefits from improved air quality could offset mitigation costs in Europe. Environ Sci Pol 50:252–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shukla PR, Dhar S (2015) Energy policies for low carbon sustainable transport in Asia. Energy Policy 81:170–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2015.02.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Spalding MD, Ruffo S, Lacambra C, Meliane I, Hale LZ, Shepard CC, Beck MW (2014) The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: adapting to climate change and coastal hazards. Ocean Coast Manag 90:50–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Surminski S (2014) The role of insurance in reducing direct risk-the case of flood insurance. IRERE 7:241–278.  https://doi.org/10.1561/101.00000062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Surminski S, Oramas-Dorta D (2014) Flood insurance schemes and climate adaptation in developing countries. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 7:154–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.10.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Surminski S, Tanner T (2016) Realising the “triple dividend of resilience”. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tanner T, Surminski S, Wilkinson E, Reid R, Rentschler J, Rajput S, Lovell E (2016) In: Surminski S, Tanner T (eds) The triple dividend of resilience: a new narrative for disaster risk management and development. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–30. Realising the “triple dividend of resilience”Google Scholar
  75. UNFCCC (2011) Assessing the costs and benefits of adaptation options: an overview of approaches. United Nations framework convention on climate change. UNFCCC, BonnGoogle Scholar
  76. van den Berg M, Wendel-Vos W, van Poppel M, Kemper H, van Mechelen W, Maas J (2015) Health benefits of green spaces in the living environment: a systematic review of epidemiological studies. Urban For Urban Green 14:806–816.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vorhies F, Wilkinson E (2016) In: Surminski S, Tanner T (eds) Co-benefits of disaster risk management: the third dividend of resilience. Springer, Berlin, pp 55–72. Realising the “triple dividend of resilience”CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. WHO (2017) Urban green space interventions and health: a review of impacts and effectiveness. World Health Organization, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  79. Wilkinson E (2012) Transforming disaster risk management: a political economy approach, working and discussion papers. ODI, LondonGoogle Scholar
  80. Wunder S (2013) When payments for environmental services will work for conservation. Conserv Lett 6:230–237.  https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhou Y, Ma M, Kong F, Wang K, Bi J (2018) Capturing the co-benefits of energy efficiency in China – a perspective from the water-energy nexus. Resour Conserv Recycl 132:93–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.01.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3)LeioaSpain
  2. 2.London School of Economics (LSE)Grantham Research InstituteLondonUK

Personalised recommendations