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Star-Based Reachability Analysis of Deep Neural Networks

  • Hoang-Dung Tran
  • Diago Manzanas Lopez
  • Patrick Musau
  • Xiaodong Yang
  • Luan Viet Nguyen
  • Weiming Xiang
  • Taylor T. JohnsonEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11800)

Abstract

This paper proposes novel reachability algorithms for both exact (sound and complete) and over-approximation (sound) analysis of deep neural networks (DNNs). The approach uses star sets as a symbolic representation of sets of states, which are known in short as stars and provide an effective representation of high-dimensional polytopes. Our star-based reachability algorithms can be applied to several problems in analyzing the robustness of machine learning methods, such as safety and robustness verification of DNNs. The star-based reachability algorithms are implemented in a software prototype called the neural network verification (NNV) tool that is publicly available for evaluation and comparison. Our experiments show that when verifying ACAS Xu neural networks on a multi-core platform, our exact reachability algorithm is on average about 19 times faster than Reluplex, a satisfiability modulo theory (SMT)-based approach. Furthermore, our approach can visualize the precise behavior of DNNs because the reachable states are computed in the method. Notably, in the case that a DNN violates a safety property, the exact reachability algorithm can construct a complete set of counterexamples. Our star-based over-approximate reachability algorithm is on average 118 times faster than Reluplex on the verification of properties for ACAS Xu networks, even without exploiting the parallelism that comes naturally in our method. Additionally, our over-approximate reachability is much less conservative than DeepZ and DeepPoly, recent approaches utilizing zonotopes and other abstract domains that fail to verify many properties of ACAS Xu networks due to their conservativeness. Moreover, our star-based over-approximate reachability algorithm obtains better robustness bounds in comparison with DeepZ and DeepPoly when verifying the robustness of image classification DNNs.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Gagandeep Singh from ETH Zurich for his help on explaining DeepZ and DeepPoly methods as well as running his tool ERAN. We also thank Shiqi Wang from Columbia University for his explanation about his interval propagation method, and Guy Katz from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem for his explanation about ACAS Xu networks and Reluplex. The discussions with Gagandeep Singh, Shiqi Wang, and Guy Katz is the main inspiration of our work in this paper. The material presented in this paper is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) through contract number FA9550-18-1-0122, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) through contract number FA8750-18-C-0089. The U.S. government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of AFOSR or DARPA.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Software Integrated SystemsVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer and Information ScienceUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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