The Role of Nanomedicine in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders

  • Syed Tazib Rahaman


Neurodegenerative disorders are responsible for malfunctioning of brain and peripheral nervous system. The therapeutic drugs that are commonly utilized for the treatment of these disorders are not able to pass through the blood–brain barrier (BBB) as it permits passage of specific nutrients which are helpful for growth. Thus, nanotechnology (NT) can be very much valuable in solving this problem as there are different forms of nanomaterials that can act as efficient drug delivery systems and help in crossing the BBB and providing effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and many more. Thus, in this chapter, we tried to conglomerate all the recent developments related to neurodegenerative disorders and also provide a brief overview about the importance of nanotechnology in varied biomedical applications.


Neurodegenerative disease Nanoparticles Blood–brain barrier Nanotechnology 



The author is thankful to GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India, for providing financial support and facilities to carry out this review.

Conflicts of Interest

The author has declared that no conflicts of interest exist.


  1. Akinc A, Battaglia G (2013) Exploiting endocytosis for nanomedicines. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5(11):a016980. Scholar
  2. Agarwal S (2006). Dystroglycan is selectively cleaved at the parenchymal basement membrane at sites of leukocyte extravasation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med; 203:1007–1019. [PubMed: 16585265]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Attia P, Phan GQ, Maker AV, Robinson MR, Quezado MM, Yang JC, Rosenberg SA (2005) Autoimmunity correlates with tumor regression in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4. J Clin Oncol 23(25):6043–6053. Scholar
  4. Broadwell RD, Sofroniew MV (1993). Serum proteins bypass the blood–brain fluid barriers for extracellular entry to the central nervous system. Exp Neurol; 120:245–263. [PubMed: 8491281]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bocti C (2006). Topographical patterns of lobar atrophy in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord;21:364–372. [PubMed: 16534206]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bencsik AA, Debeer SOS, Baron TGM (2005) An alternative pretreatment procedure in animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies diagnosis using PrPsc immunohistochemistry. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 53(10):1199–1202. Scholar
  7. Banks WA (2002). Passage of amyloid beta protein antibody across the blood–brain barrier in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Peptides; 23: 2223–2226. [PubMed: 12535702]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cui WW, Low SE, Hirata H, Saint-Amant L, Geisler R, Hume RI, Kuwada JY (2005) The zebrafish shocked gene encodes a glycine transporter and is essential for the function of early neural circuits in the CNS. J Neurosci Off J Soc Neurosci 25(28):6610–6620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis DS, Ashby PE, McCale KL, McQuain JA, Wine JM (2005) The effectiveness of 3 stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility using consistent stretching parameters. J Strength Cond Res 19(1):27–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Duncan R (2003). The dawning era of polymer therapeutics. Nat Rev Drug Discov. [PubMed: 12750738], 2, 347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dhib-Jalbut S (2006) Neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases. J Neuroimmunol;176:198–215. [PubMed: 16983747]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Flachenecker P. (2006) Epidemiology of neuroimmunological diseases. J Neurol;253:v2–v8. [PubMed: 16998750]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaillard PJ, Visser CC, de Boer AG (2005) Targeted delivery across the blood–brain barrier. Expert Opin Drug Deliv; 2:299–309. [PubMed: 16296755]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Georganopoulou DG, Chang L, Nam JM, Thaxton CS, Mufson EJ, Klein WL, Mirkin CA (2005) Nanoparticle-based detection in cerebral spinal fluid of a soluble pathogenic biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(7):2273–2276. Scholar
  15. Gobbi G, Bambico FR, Mangieri R, Bortolato M, Campolongo P, Solinas M, Piomelli D (2005) Antidepressant-like activity and modulation of brain monoaminergic transmission by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(51):18620–18625. Scholar
  16. Tosi G, Costantino L, Ruozi B, Forni F, Vandelli MA (2008) Polymeric nanoparticles for the drug delivery to the central nervous system. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 5(2):155–174. Scholar
  17. Härtig W, Mages B, Aleithe S, Nitzsche B, Altmann S, Barthel H et al (2017) Damaged neocortical Perineuronal nets due to experimental focal cerebral ischemia in mice, rats and sheep. Front Integr Neurosci 11:15. Scholar
  18. Han G, Gable K, Yan L, Allen MJ, Wilson WH, Moitra P, Harmon JM, Dunn TM (2006) Expression of a novel marine viral single-chain serine palmitoyltransferase and construction of yeast and mammalian single-chain chimera. J Biol Chem 281(52):39935–39942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huang X, Lin J, Demner-Fushman D (2006) Evaluation of PICO as a knowledge representation for clinical questions. AMIA … annual symposium proceedings. AMIA Symposium 2006:359–363Google Scholar
  20. Khachaturian ZS (2006) Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: two-decades of progress. J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9:409–415. [PubMed: 16914879]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim SU (2007) Genetically engineered human neural stem cells for brain repair in neurological diseases. Brain and Development;29:193–201. [PubMed: 17303360]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kingsley JD (2006) Nanotechnology: a focus on nanoparticles as a drug delivery system. J Neuroimmunol Pharmacol 1:340–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lehericy S (2007) Magnetic resonance imaging of Alzheimer’s disease. Eur Radiol, 17:347–362. [PubMed: 16865367]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Langer R (2001). Drug delivery. Drugs on target Science; 293:58–59. [PubMed: 11441170]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kogan MJ, Bastus NG, Amigo R, Grillo-Bosch D, Araya E, Turiel A, Labarta A, Giralt E, Puntes VF (2006) Nanoparticle-mediated local and remote manipulation of protein aggregation. Nano Lett 6(1):110–115. Scholar
  26. Neumann H (2006). Microglia: a cellular vehicle for CNS gene therapy. J Clin Invest; 116:2857–2860. [PubMed: 17080190]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prinster A (2006) Grey matter loss in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a voxel-based morphometry study. NeuroImage; 29:859–867. [PubMed: 16203159]Google Scholar
  28. Pardridge WM (2005) The blood-brain barrier: bottleneck in brain drug development. NeuroRx 2(1):3–14. Scholar
  29. Robichaud AJ (2006) Approaches to palliative therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Top Med Chem; 6: 553–568. [PubMed: 16712491]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ritchie ME, Phipson B, Wu D, Hu Y, Law CW, Shi W, Smyth GK (2015) Limma powers differential expression analyses for RNA-sequencing and microarray studies. Nucleic Acids Res 43(7):e47. Scholar
  31. Ramanathan S, Archunan G, Sivakumar M, Tamil Selvan S, Fred AL, Kumar S, Padmanabhan P (2018) Theranostic applications of nanoparticles in neurodegenerative disorders. Int J Nanomed 13:5561–5576. Scholar
  32. Serra P, Santamaria P (2018) Nanoparticle-based approaches to immune tolerance for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Eur J Immunol 48:751–756. Scholar
  33. Shyam S, Arshad F, Abdul Ghani R, Wahab NA, Safii NS, Nisak MY, Kamaruddin NA (2013) Low glycaemic index diets improve glucose tolerance and body weight in women with previous history of gestational diabetes: a six months randomized trial. Nutr J 12:68. Scholar
  34. Silva GA (2006). Neuroscience nanotechnology: progress, opportunities and challenges. Nat Rev Neurosci;7:65–74. [PubMed: 16371951]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith MW, Gumbleton M (2006) Endocytosis at the blood–brain barrier: from basic understanding to drug delivery strategies. J Drug Target;14:191–214. [PubMed: 16777679]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sonvico F, Clementino A, Buttini F, Colombo G, Pescina S, Stanisçuaski Guterres S, Nicoli S (2018) Surface-modified Nanocarriers for nose-to-brain delivery: from bioadhesion to targeting. Pharmaceutics 10(1):34. Scholar
  37. Stupp R, Brada M, van den Bent MJ, Tonn JC, Pentheroudakis G, ESMO Guidelines Working Group (2014) High-grade glioma: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 25(3):93–101. Scholar
  38. Schrag A, Quinn NP, Ben-Shlomo Y (2006) Heterogeneity of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:275–276. [PubMed: 16421140]Google Scholar
  39. Saltzman WM (1999) Intracranial delivery of recombinant nerve growth factor: release kinetics and protein distribution for three delivery systems. Pharm Res 16:232–240. [PubMed: 10100308]Google Scholar
  40. Simpkins JW, Bodor N (2014) Brain-targeted delivery of dopamine using are dox-based chemical delivery system. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 14:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tyler CM, Federoff HJ (2006) CNS gene therapy and a nexus of complexity: systems and biology at a crossroads. Cell Transplant;15:267–273. [PubMed: 16719061]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Teleanu DM, Negut I, Grumezescu V, Grumezescu AM, Teleanu RI (2019) Nanomaterials for drug delivery to the central nervous system. Nanomaterials (Basel Switzerland) 9(3):371. Scholar
  43. Trapani S, Micheli A, Grisolia F, Resti M, Chiappini E, Falcini F, De Martino M (2005) Henoch Schonlein purpura in childhood: epidemiological and clinical analysis of 150 cases over a 5-year period and review of literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 3(35):143–153. Scholar
  44. Tamai I, Tsuji A (2000). Transporter-mediated permeation of drugs across the blood–brain barrier. J Pharm Sci; 89:1371–1388. [PubMed: 11015683]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vinogradov, S., Fisher, M., & de Villers-Sidani, E. (2012). Cognitive training for impaired neural systems in neuropsychiatric illness. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37(1), 43–76. doi: Scholar
  46. Woods SC (2003) Insulin and the blood–brain barrier. Curr Pharm Des; 9:795–800. [PubMed: 12678878]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang X, Bo J, Bridges T, Dugan KD, Pan TC, Chodosh LA, Montell DJ (2006) Analysis of cell migration using whole-genome expression profiling of migratory cells in the Drosophila ovary. Dev Cell 10(4):483–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang L, Zhao W, Tan W (2008) Bioconjugated silica nanoparticles: development and applications. Nano Res 1:99. Scholar
  49. Weissig V (2006). Liposomes and liposome-like vesicles for drug and DNA delivery to mitochondria. J Liposome Res; 16:249–264. [PubMed: 16952879]CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Tazib Rahaman
    • 1
  1. 1.GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM (Deemed to be University)VisakhapatnamIndia

Personalised recommendations