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Nanocarrier-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems for Neurodegenerative Diseases

  • Sathika G. G. Arachchige
  • Ryan Rienzie
  • Nadeesh M. AdassooriyaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The central nervous system (CNS) is affected in neurodegenerative diseases which lead to neuronal malfunction and death. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) which separates blood from the brain maintains the homeostasis in the CNS. It shows permeability only for selected substances, especially molecules which are small in size. Hence, the entry of certain drugs required for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is prevented. Mostly, less than 1% of drugs cross the BBB resulting in low efficiency in conventional treatment methods. The advent of nanotechnology for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease serves as a promising alternative approach. The most interesting fact is nanocarriers can be used to cross the BBB efficiently enabling them to use in targeted drug delivery. In here, drugs are combined in nanomaterials which facilitate the drug delivery across the BBB and size, type, polarity, and surface chemistry of nanoparticles are the determinants of efficacy in transporting across BBB. Nanocarriers can be designed in such a way that it does not alter the effect of the drugs. However, care has to be taken when choosing nanomaterials (NM) as some are nonbiodegradable. They can accumulate in the brain and cause toxic side effects. The fate of such particles is yet to be discovered. This chapter extensively discusses the nanocarrier-mediated drug delivery for the treatment of these diseases and their future prospects.

Keywords

Central nervous system Blood-brain barrier Cell death Nanocarriers Targeted drug delivery Carrier-mediated specificity Biodegradable 

Nomenclature

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

BCSFB

Brain cerebrospinal fluid barrier

CED

Convection-enhanced delivery

CNS

Central nervous system

HD

Huntington’s disease

HTT

Huntingtin

LBD

Lewy body dementia

MSNPs

Mesoporous silica NPs

NC

Nanocomposite

NM

Nanomaterials

NPs

Nanoparticles

PBCA

Poly(butylcyanoacrylate)

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEI

Polyethylenimine

PLGA

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)

PNP

Polymeric nanoparticles

siRNA

Short-interfering RNA

SLNPs

Solid lipid nanoparticles

VD

Vascular dementia

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sathika G. G. Arachchige
    • 1
  • Ryan Rienzie
    • 2
  • Nadeesh M. Adassooriya
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka
  2. 2.Agribusiness Centre, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and TechnologyWayamba University of Sri Lanka, MakanduraGonawilaSri Lanka

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