Advertisement

In Sustainable Agriculture: Assessment of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Cucurbitaceous Vegetable Crops

  • Musa SeymenEmail author
  • Ertan Sait Kurtar
  • Atilla Dursun
  • Önder Türkmen
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 23)

Abstract

One of the most important vegetable families commonly grown in around of the world is Cucurbitaceae for economic value, nutrition, consumer’s preference, general adaptability and extent of cultivation. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mostly associated with the plant rhizosphere have been established as beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. They are important to promote the circulation of plant nutrients and reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and interest in eco-friendly, sustainable and organic agricultural practices as well. Use of PGPR’s containing beneficial microorganisms in lieu of inorganic chemicals are positively known to affect plant growth and may help to sustain environmental health and soil productivity, even in biotic and abiotic stress conditions. PGPR’s also have potential bio-control agents against to a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens in agriculture. The effects of PGPR’s on physiological mechanisms, plant growth, yield and yield components, uptake of mineral elements and contents, biotic and abiotic stress conditions in Cucurbits vegetables and future perspectives have been discussed in the review.

Keywords

PGPR Cucurbits Growth Yield Biotic Abiotic Minerals 

References

  1. Abdel Latef AAH, Chaoxing H (2011) Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzymes activity and fruit yield of tomato grown under salinity stress. Sci Hortic 127:228–233.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.09.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abd-El-Fattah MA, Sorial ME (2000) Sex expression and productivity responses of summer squash to biofertilizer application under different nitrogen levels. Zagzig J Agric Res 27:255–281Google Scholar
  3. Abou-El-Hassan S, Abdrabbo MA, Desoky AH (2014) Enhancing organic production of cucumber by using plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and compost tea under sandy soil condition. Research J Agric Bio Sci 10:162–169Google Scholar
  4. Adhikari M, Yadav DR, Kim SW et al (2017) Biological control of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon pathogen (Acidovorax citrulli) with rhizosphere associated bacteria. Plant Patholog J 33:170–183.  https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2016.0187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agami RA, Medani RA, Abd El-Mola IA, Taha RS (2016) Exogenous application with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or proline induces stress tolerance in basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.) exposed to water stress. Int J Environ Agric Res 2:78–92Google Scholar
  6. Agrawal PK, Agrawal S, Kundan R, Bhatt M (2014) Application and perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in development of sustainable agriculture. Int J Cur Res 6:9044–9051Google Scholar
  7. Ahamd M, Zeshan MSH, Nasim M (2015) Improving the productivity of cucumber through combined application of organic fertilizers and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Pak J Agri Sci 52:1011–1016Google Scholar
  8. Ahemad M, Khan MS (2010) Growth promotion and protection of lentil (Lens esculenta) against herbicide stress by Rhizobium species. Ann Microbiol 60:735–745.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13213-010-0124-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahemad M, Khan MS (2011) Insecticide-tolerant and plant growth promoting Bradyrhizobium sp. (vigna) improves the growth and yield of green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] in insecticide stressed soils. Symbiosis 54:17–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-011-0122-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ahemad M, Kibret M (2014) Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: current perspective. J King Saud Univ Sci 26:1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2013.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Akhgar R, Arzanlou M, Bakker PAHM, Hamidpour M (2014) Characterization of 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-containing Pseudomonas sp. in the rhizosphere of salt-stressed canola. Pedosphere 24:161–468.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(14)60032-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Al-Ani RA, Adhab MA (2012) Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection using Pseudomonas fluorescens biofertilizer. Afr J Biotechnol 101:16579–16585.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB12.2308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Anand K, Kumari B, Mallick MA (2016) Phosphate solubilizing microbes: an effective and alternative approach as bio-fertilizers. Int J Pharm Sci 8:37–40Google Scholar
  14. Arao T, Takeda H, Nishihara E (2008) Reduction of cadmium translocation from roots to shoots in eggplant (Solanum melongena) by grafting onto Solanum torvum rootstock. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 54:555–559.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2008.00269.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arndt W, Kolle C, Buchenauer H (1998) Effectiveness of fluorescent pseudomonads on cucumber and tomato plants under practical conditions and preliminary studies on the mode of action of the antagonists. J Plant Dis Prot 105:198–215Google Scholar
  16. Bahadır PS, Liaqat F, Eltem R (2018) Plant growth pFromoting properties of phosphate solubilizing Bacillus species isolated from the Aegean Region of Turkey. Turk J Bot 42:183–196.  https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1706-51
  17. Bashan Y (1998) Inoculants of plant growth-promoting bacteria for use in agriculture. Biotechnol Adv 16:729–770.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0734-9750(98)00003-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhardwaj D, Ansari MW, Sahoo RK, Tuteja N (2014) Biofertilizers function as key player in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity. Microb Cell Factories 66:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2859-13-66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:1327–1350.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-011-0979-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cassán F, Perrig D, Sgroy V, Masciarelli O, Penna C, Luna V (2009) Azospirillum brasilense Az39 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109, inoculated singly or in combination, pro-mote seed germination and early seedling growth in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). Eur J Soil Biol 45:28–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2008.08.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Christensen JH, Hewitson B, Busuioc A et al (2007) Regional climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, pp 848–940Google Scholar
  22. Colla G, Rouphael Y, Cardarelli M, Tullio M, Rivera CM, Rea E (2008) Alleviation of salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhizal in zucchini plants grown at low and high phosphorus concentration. Biol Fertil Soils 44:501–509.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-007-0232-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daei G, Ardekani MR, Rejali F, Teimuri S, Miransari M (2009) Alleviation of salinity stress on wheat yield, yield components, and nutrient uptake using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. J Plant Physiol 166:617–625.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2008.09.013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Damam M, Kaloori K, Gaddam B, Kausar R (2016) Plant growth promoting substances (phytohormones) produced by rhizobacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Sci Rev 37:130–136Google Scholar
  25. Dardanelli MS, Carletti SM, Paulucci NS et al (2010) Benefits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and rhizobia in agriculture. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Plant growth and health promoting bacteria. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  26. Dasgan HY, Aydoner G, Akyol M (2010) Use of some microorganisms as bio-fertilizers in soilless grown squash for saving chemical nutrients. In: Procedings of the XXVIIIth IHC – IS on Greenhouse, pp 155–162Google Scholar
  27. Dursun A, Ekinci M, Donmez MF (2010) Effects of foliar application of plant growth promoting bacterium on chemical contents, yield and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Pak J Bot 42:3349–3356Google Scholar
  28. Elazzazy AM, Almaghrabi OA, Moussa TA, Abdelmoneim TS (2012) Evaluation of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) to control Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber plants. Life Sci J 9:3147–3153Google Scholar
  29. Elbeshehy EKF, Youssef SA, Elazzazy AM (2015) Resistance induction in pumpkin Cucurbita maxima L. against Watermelon mosaic potyvirus by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Biocontrol Sci Tech 25:525–542.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2014.994198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. El-Borollosy AM, Oraby MM (2012) Induced systemic resistance against Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus and promotion of cucumber growth by some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Ann Agric Sci 57:91–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2012.08.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. El-Iklil Y, Karrou M, Benichou M (2000) Salt stress effect on epinasty in relation to ethylene production and water relations in tomato. Agron 20:399–406. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00886055
  32. El-Meihy RM (2016) Evaluation of pgpr as osmoprotective agents for squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) growth under drought stress. Middle East J 5:583–595Google Scholar
  33. El-Sharkawy EES, Abdalla MY, El-Shemy AO (2015) Biological control and induction of systemic resistance against cucumber fusarium wilt by plant growth promoting rhizo-organisms. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 25:407–413Google Scholar
  34. Elwan MWM, Abd EA (2015) Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on summer squash growth, yield, nutrients uptake and availability under nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization levels. Arab Univ J Agricul Sci 23:497–513Google Scholar
  35. Esitken A, Ipek M, Arikan Ş, Aras S, Sahin M, Pirlak L, Donmez F, Turan M (2016) Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on Fe nutrition and FC-R activity of peach under calcareous soil conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci (in process)Google Scholar
  36. Falkenmark M (2013) Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water security. Philos Trans R Soc A 371:20120410.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2012.0410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. FAO (2016) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/TP. Accessed 14 Mar 2018
  38. Farrag DK, Omara AA, El-Said MN (2015) Significance of foliar spray with some growth promoting rhizobacteria and some natural biostimulants on yield and quality of cucumber plant. Egypt J Hort 42:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Firmansyah D (2017) Use of chitosan and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to control squash mosaic virus on cucumber Plants. Institut Pertanian Bogor, pp-44Google Scholar
  40. Fouzia A, Allaoua S, Hafsa C, Mostefa G (2015) Plant growth promoting and antagonistic traits of indigenous fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from wheat rhizosphere and a thalamus endosphere. Eur Sci J 11:129–148Google Scholar
  41. Foyer CH, Rasool B, Davey JW, Hancock RD (2016) Cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants: a focus on resistance to aphid infestation. J Exp Bot 7:2025–2037.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Francois LE (1985) Salinity effects on germination, growth, and yield of two squash cultivars. Horticience 20:1102–1104Google Scholar
  43. Fravel DR (2005) Commercialization and implementation of biocontrol. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:337–359.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.43.032904.092924
  44. Gabriela F, Casanovas EM, Quillehauquy V, Yommi AK, Goni MG, Roura SI, Barassi CA (2015) Azospirillum inoculation effects on growth, product quality and storage life of lettuce plants grown under salt stress. Sci Hortic 195:154–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. García-Gutiérrez L, Romero D, Zeriouh H et al (2012) Isolation and selection of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as inducers of systemic resistance in melon. Plant Soil 358:201–212.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1173-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. García-Gutiérrez L, Romero D, Zeriouh H, Cazorla FM, Vicente AD, Pérez-García A (2009) Induction of systemic resistance by PGPR, a suitable means to consider for managing of cucurbit powdery mildew. Multitrophic Interact SoilIOBC/wprs Bull 42:83–86Google Scholar
  47. Gerhardson B (2002) Biological substitutes for pesticides. Trends Biotechnol 20:338–343.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(02)02021-8CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Glick BR (2014) Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world. Microbiol Res 169:30–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2013.09.009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Glick BR, Cheng Z, Czarny J, Duan J (2007) Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria. Eur J Plant Patholo 119:329–339.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-007-9162-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gopal S, Chandrasekaran M, Shagol C, Kim KY, Sa TM (2012) Spore associated bacteria (SAB) of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase nutrient uptake and plant growth under stress conditions. Korean J Soil Sci Fert 45:582–592.  https://doi.org/10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.4.582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gouda S, Kerry RG, Das G, Paramithiotis S, Shin HS, Patra JK (2018) Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture. Microbiol Res 206:131–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2017.08.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grichko VP, Glick BR (2001) Amelioration of flooding stress by ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting bacteria. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:11–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0981-9428(00)01212-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gül A, Özaktan H, Kıdoğlu F, Tüzel Y (2013) Rhizobacteria promoted yield of cucumber plants grown in perlite under Fusarium wilt stress. Sci Hortic 153:22–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.01.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gupta G, Parihar SS, Ahirwar NK, Snehi SK, Singh V (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): current and future prospects for development of sustainable agriculture. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:096–102.  https://doi.org/10.4172/1948-5948.1000188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Haggag WM, Abouziena HF, Abd-El-Kreem F, Habbasha S (2015) Agriculture biotechnology for management of multiple biotic and abiotic environmental stress in crops. J Chem Pharm 7:882–889Google Scholar
  56. Han HS, Lee KD (2006) Effect of co-inoculation with phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Plant Soil Environ 52:130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hassouna MG, El-Saedy MAM, Saleh HM (1998) Biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens attacking cucumber (Cucumis sativus) by Rhizobacteria in a semiarid environment. Arid Land Res Manag 12:345–357.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15324989809381523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Horuz S, Aysa Y (2016) Biological control of watermelon seedling blight caused by acidovorax citrulli using antagonistic bacteria. Plant Protect Sci 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.17221/168/2016-PPS
  59. İmriz G, Özdemir F, Topal BE, Taş MN, Yakışır E, Okur O (2014) Bitkisel üretimde bitki gelişimini teşvik eden rizobakteri (pgpr)’ler ve etki mekanizmaları. Elektronik Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi 12:1–19Google Scholar
  60. Ipek M, Aras S, Arikan Ş, Eşitken A, Pirlak L, Donmez F, Turan M (2017) Root plant growth promoting rhizobacteria inoculations increases ferric chelate reductase (FC-R) activity and Fe nutrition in pear under calcareous soil conditions. Sci Hortic 219:144–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.02.043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ipek M, Pirlak L, Esitken A, Figen Dönmez M, Turan M, Sahin F (2014) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase yield, growth and nutrition of strawberry under high-calcareous soil conditions. J Plant Nutr 37:990–1001.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2014.881857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Isfahani FM, Besharati H (2012) Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber. J Biol Earth Sci 2:83–92Google Scholar
  63. Islam S, Akanda AM, Prova A, Islam MT, Hossain MM (2016) Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from cucumber rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion and disease suppression. Front microbiol 6:1360.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01360CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Jeun YC, Park KS, Kim CH, Fowler WD, Kloepper JW (2004) Cytological observations of cucumber plants during induced resistance elicited by rhizobacteria. Biol Control 29(1):34–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1049-9644(03)00082-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jourdan E, Henry G, Duby F, Dommes J, Barthelemy JP, Thonart P, Ongena M (2009) Insights into the defenserelated events occurring in plant cells following perception of surfactin-type lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 22:456–468.  https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-22-4-0456CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Kabayashi N (1989) Suppression of Rhizoctonia and Pythium damping-off of cucumber by microorganisms in charcoal and VAM Fungi. In: Hattori H et al (eds) Research advances in microbial ecology. Japan Scientifi c Press, Japan, pp 242–246Google Scholar
  67. Kalefetoğlu T, Ekmekçi Y (2005) The effects of drought on plants and tolerance mechanisms. Gazi Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi 18:723–740Google Scholar
  68. Kanchiswamy CN, Malnoy M, Maffei ME (2015) Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity. Front Plant Sci 6:151.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00151CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Kang SM, Hamayun M, Joo GJ et al (2010) Effect of Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP on some physiochemical attributes of cucumber. Eur J Soil Biology 46:264–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2010.03.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kang SM, Radhakrishnan R, You YH et al (2015) Cucumber performance is improved by inoculation with plant growth-promoting microorganisms. Acta Agric Scand, Sect B Soil Plant Sci 65:36–44.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2014.960889
  71. Kang SM, Khan AL, Waqas M et al (2014) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria reduce adverse effects of salinity and osmotic stress by regulating phytohormones and antioxidants in Cucumis sativus. J Plant Int 9:673–682.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2014.894587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Khabbaz SE, Abbasi PA (2013) Isolation, characterization, and formulation of antagonistic bacteria for the management of seedlings damping-off and root rot disease of cucumber. Can J Microbiol 60:25–33.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2013-0675CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Kidoglu F, Gül A, Ozaktan H, Tüzel Y (2007) Effect of rhizobacteria on plant growth of different vegetables. In: ISHS Acta Horticulturae 801: International Symposium on High Technology for Greenhouse System Management: Greensys 2007Google Scholar
  74. Kim YC, Glick B, Bashan Y, Ryu CM (2013) Enhancement of plant droughttolerance by microbes. In: Aroca R (ed) Plant responses to drought stress. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  75. Kloepper JW (1994) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (other systems). In: Okon Y (ed) Azospirillum/plant associations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  76. Kloepper JW, Schroth M (1978) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on radishes. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacter, vol 2, pp 879–882Google Scholar
  77. Kloepper JW, Tuzun S, Liu L, Wei G (1993) Plant growth- promoting rhizobacteria as inducers of systemic disease resistance. In: Lumsden RD, Waughn JL (eds) Pest management: biologically based technologies. American Chemical Society Books, Washington, DC, pp 156–165Google Scholar
  78. Kokalis-Burelle N, Vavrina CS, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW (2003) Amendment of muskmelon and watermelon transplant media with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: effects on seedling quality, disease, and nematode resistance. HortTechnology 13:476–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kumar P, Dubey RC (2012) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for biocontrol of phytopathogens and yield enhancement of Phaseolus vulgaris. J Curr Perspect App Microbiol 1:6–38Google Scholar
  80. Lee YH, Lee WH, Lee DK, Shim HK (2001) Factors relating to induced systemic resistance in watermelon by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. Plant Pathol J 17:174–179Google Scholar
  81. Levanony H, Bashan Y (1989) Localization of specific antigens of Azospirillum brasilense Cd in its exopolysaccharide by immune-gold staining. Curr Microbiol 18:145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ling N, Deng K, Song Y et al (2014) Variation of rhizosphere bacterial community in watermelon continuous mono-cropping soil by long-term application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer. Microbiol Res 169:570–578.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2013.10.004CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ling N, Zhang W, Tan S, Huang Q, Shen Q (2012) Effect of the nursery application of bioorganic fertilizer on spatial distribution of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and its antagonistic bacterium in the rhizosphere of watermelon. Appl Soil Ecol 59:13–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2012.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Liu D, Lian B, Dong H (2012) Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and assessment of its potential for enhancing mineral weathering. J Geomicrobiol 29:413–421.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2011.576602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Liu L, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1995) Induction of systemic resistance in cucumber against Fusarium wilt by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Phytopathology 85:695–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lokesh S, Bharath BG, Raghavendra VB, Govindappa M (2007) Importance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in enhancing the seed germination and growth of watermelon attacked by fungal pathogens. Acta Agron Hung 55:243–249.  https://doi.org/10.1556/AAgr.55.2007.2.12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lu G, Chen G, Qi G, Gao Z (2006) Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and fruit quality of plastic greenhouse Cucumis sativus L. J Appl Ecol 17:2352–2356Google Scholar
  88. Mangmang JS, Deaker R, Rogers G (2015) Early seedling growth response of lettuce, tomato and cucumber to Azospirillum brasilense inoculated by soaking and drenching. Hort Sci 42: 37–46.  https://doi.org/10.17221/159/2014-HORTSCI
  89. Marschner H (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  90. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomatoes and peppers. Plant Sci 166:525–530.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2003.10.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McCullagh M, Utkhede R, Menzies JG, Punja ZK, Paulitz TC (1996) Evaluation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for biological control of Pythium root rot of cucumbers grown in rockwool and effects on yield. Eur J Plant Pathol 102:747–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McKeon TA, Fernandez-Maculet JC, Yang SF (1995) Biosynthesis and metabolism of ethylene. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormones physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp 118–139Google Scholar
  93. Medeiros FH, Moraes IS, da Silva Neto EB, Silveira EB, Rosa de Lima RM (2009) Management of melon bacterial blotch by plant beneficial bacteria. Phytoparasitica 37:453–460.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-009-0063-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mo X (2013) Interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and squash plants—the role of PGPR-mediated suppression of phytophthora blight. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, pp 187Google Scholar
  95. Moussa SAM (2006) Interactıon effect between phosphate dissolving micro-organisms and boron on squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) growth, endogenous phyto. J Biol Chem Environ Sci 1:751–774Google Scholar
  96. Nadeem SM, Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Javaid A, Ashraf M (2014) The role of mycorrhizae and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in improving crop productivity under stressful environments. Biotechnol Adv 32:429–448.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2013.12.005CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Nga NT, Tien DT, Linh VT et al (2013) Control of plant diseases by the endophytic rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23 1-1. Recent advances in biofertilisers and biofungicides (PGPR) for sustainable agriculture, pp 8–18Google Scholar
  98. Nga NTT, Giau NT, Long NT et al (2010) Rhizobacterially induced protection of watermelon against Didymella bryoniae. J App Microbiol 109:567–582.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04685.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nimnoi P, Pongsilp N, Lumyong S (2014) Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max) with actinomycetes and Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances plant growth, nitrogenase activity and plant nutrition. J Plant Nut 37:432–446.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2013.864308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Noumavo PA, Agbodjato NA, Baba-Moussa F, Adjanohoun A, Baba-Moussa L (2016) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: beneficial effects for healthy and sustainable agriculture. Afric J Biotech 15:1452–1463.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2016.15397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Oerke EC (2005) Crop losses to pests. J Agric Sci 144:31–43.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859605005708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Oliver MA (1997) Soil and human health: a review. Eur J Soil Sci 48:573–592.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1997.tb00558.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ongena M, Jacques P (2007) Bacillus lipopeptides: versatile weapons for plant disease biocontrol. Trends Microbiol 16:115–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2007.12.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ongena MARC, Daayf F, Jacques P et al (2000) Systemic induction of phytoalexins in cucumber in response to treatments with fluorescent pseudomonads. Plant Pathol 49:523–530.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2000.00468.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Örs S, Ekinci M (2015) Kuraklık stresi ve bitki fizyolojisi. Derim 32:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Palacio-Rodríguez R, Coria-Arellano JL, López-Bucio J et al (2017) Halophilic rhizobacteria from Distichlis spicata promote growth and improve salt tolerance in heterologous plant hosts. Symbiosis 73:179–189.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-017-0481-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Park K, Park JW, Lee SW, Balaraju K (2013) Disease suppression and growth promotion in cucumbers induced by integrating PGPR agent Bacillus subtilis strain B4 and chemical elicitor ASM. Crop Prot 54:199–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.08.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Parmar P, Sindhu SS (2013) Potassium solubilisation by Rhizosphere Bacteria: influence of nutritional and environmental conditions. J Microb Res 3:25–31.  https://doi.org/10.5923/j.microbiology.20130301.04CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Patten CL, Glick BR (2002) Role of Pseudomonas putida indoleacetic acid in development of the host plant root system. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3795–3801.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.68.8.3795-3801.2002CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Pieterse CMJ, Leon-Reyes A, Van der Ent S, Van Wees SCM (2009) Networking by small-molecule hormones in plant immunity. Nat Chem Biol 5:308–316.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.164CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Pii Y, Marastoni L, Springeth C et al (2016) Modulation of Fe acquisition process by Azospirillum brasilense in cucumber plants. Environ Exp Bot 130:216–225.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2016.06.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pii Y, Penn A, Terzano R, Crecchio C, Mimmo T, Cesco S (2015) Plant-microorganism-soil interactions influence the Fe availability in the rhizosphere of cucumber plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 87:45–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2014.12.014CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Rahmatullah M, Biswas A, Haq WM, Seraj S, Jahan R (2012) An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh. Chron Young Sci 3(3):212Google Scholar
  114. Ramadan EM, AbdelHafez AA, Hassan EA, Saber FM (2016) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and their potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens. Afr J Microbiol Res 10:486–504.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2015.7714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Raupach GS, Kloepper JW (1998) Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens. Phytopathology 88:1158–1164.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.1998.88.11.1158CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Ravnskov S, Jakobsen I (1999) Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens DF57 on growth and P uptake of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with cucumber. Mycorrhiza 8:329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Raza W, Ling N, Yang L, Huang Q, Shen Q (2016) Response of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum to the volatile organic compounds produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9. Sci Rep 6:24856.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24856CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Reddy PP (2016) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for horticultural crop protection. Springer. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, pp 310Google Scholar
  119. Reed ML, Glick BR (2005) Growth of canola (Brassica napus) in the presence of plant growth-promoting bacteria and either copper or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Can J Microbiol 51:1061–1069.  https://doi.org/10.1139/w05-094CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Refai EF, Foly H, Dakhly OF (2010) Growth and yield of zucchini type summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) fertilized by combined Azotobacter chroococum mutants and mineral n-fertilization. Egypt J Agric Res 88:241–255.  https://doi.org/10.1139/w05-094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Safronova VI, Stepanok VV, Engqvist GL, Alekseyev YV, Belimov AA (2006) Root-associated bacteria containing 1- minocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate deaminase improve growth and nutrient uptake by pea genotypes cultivated in cadmium supplemented soil. Biol Fert Soils 42:267–272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-005-0024-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Saharan BS, Nehra V (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a critical review. Life Sci Med Res 21:30Google Scholar
  123. Sairam KVSS, Reddy NSR (2013) Global success of prathista industries organic agri-inputs for sustainable agriculture. In: Recent advances in biofertilizers and biofungicides (PGPR) for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of 3rd Asian conference on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and other microbials, manila, philippines, 21–24 April, pp 8–12Google Scholar
  124. Salman M, Shahin N, Abu-Khalaf N et al (2017) Antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Nievum isolated from soil samples in palestine. J Plant Stud 6:2.  https://doi.org/10.5539/jps.v6n2p1
  125. Sanchis V, Bourguet D (2008) Bacillus thuringiensis: applications in agriculture and insect resistance management: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 28:11–20.  https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2007054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Santoro MV, Bogino PC, Nocelli N, Cappellari LR, Giordano WF, Banchio E (2016) Analysis of plant growth promoting effects of Fluorescent pseudomonas strains isolated from Mentha piperita Rhizosphere and effects of their volatile organic compounds on essential oil composition. Front Microbiol 1085:1–17.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Savvas D, Colla G, Rouphael Y, Schwarz D (2010) Amelioration of heavy metal and nutrient stress in fruit vegetables by grafting. Sci Hortic 127:156–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.09.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Selvakumar G, Mohan M, Kundu S et al (2008) Cold tolerance and plant growth promotion potential of Serratia marcescens strain SRM (MTCC 8708) isolated from flowers of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Lett Appl Microbiol 46:171–175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02282.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Sensoy S, Ertek A, Gedik I, Kucukyumuk C (2007) Irrigation frequency and amount affect yield and quality of field-grown melon (Cucumis melo L.). Agri Wat Manag 88:269–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2006.10.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Setiawati TC, Mutmainnah L (2016) Solubilization of Potassium containing mineral by microorganisms from sugarcane Rhizosphere. Agri Sci Procedia 9:108–117.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.02.134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Seymen M, Eyice R, Türkmen Ö, Paksoy M, Dönmez FM, Dursun A (2015a) Bazı Bakteri Aşılamalarının Hıyarın (Cucumis sativus L.) Besin Elementi İçeriğine Etkileri. Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 27:1–7Google Scholar
  132. Seymen M, Turkmen O, Dursun A, Donmez MF, Paksoy M (2010) Effects of bacterium inoculation on yield and yield components of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Bull UASVM Hortic 67:274–277Google Scholar
  133. Seymen M, Türkmen Ö, Dursun A, Paksoy M (2014) Effects of bacteria inoculation on yield, yield components and mineral contents of tomato. Selcuk J Agr Food Sci 28:52–57Google Scholar
  134. Seymen M, Türkmen Ö, Dursun A, Paksoy M, Dönmez MF (2013b) Effects of bacteria ınoculation on yield, yield components and mineral composition in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In: ICOEST Conference 2013 (Special Issue-1) pp, 403–413. Journal of Selcuk University Natural and Applied ScienceGoogle Scholar
  135. Seymen M, Türkmen Ö, Paksoy M (2013a) Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, yield components and mineral contents of pepper under greenhouse conditions. J Ecosys Ecolo Sci 3:645–650Google Scholar
  136. Seymen M, Türkmen Ö, Paksoy M (2015a) Bacteria inoculation affect on yield, yield components and mineral contents of (Capsicum annum L.) bell pepper. In: 7th ICGBEEAH2015 July 10–11, pp 87–94. ISSN 1947-8321Google Scholar
  137. Seymen M, Yavuz D, Yavuz N, Türkmen Ö (2016) Effect on yield and yield components of different irrigation levels in edible seed pumpkin growing. Int J Biol Biomol Agric Food Biotechnol Eng 10:214–219Google Scholar
  138. Shaharoona B, Arshad M, Zahir ZA (2006) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase on maize (Zea mays L.) growth under exenic conditions and on nodulation in mung bean. Lett Appl Microbiol 42:155–159.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2005.01827.xCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Sharma A, Johri BN, Sharma AK, Glick BR (2013) Plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain GRP3 influences iron acquisition in mung bean (Vignaradiata L. Wilzeck). Soil Biol Biochem 35:887–894.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00119-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall F (2007) Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 66:258–266.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Shridhar BS (2012) Review: nitrogen fixing microorganisms. Int J Microb Res 3:46–52Google Scholar
  142. Sikora RA (1992) Management of the antagonistic potential in agricultural ecosystems for the biological control of plant parasitic nematodes. Ann Rev Phytopatho 30:245–270.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.30.090192.001333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Singh RP, Jha PN (2015) Molecular identification and characterization of Rhizospheric bacteria for plant growth promoting ability. Int J Curr Biotechnol 3:12–18Google Scholar
  144. Sokolova MG, Akimova GP, Vaishlia OB (2011) Effect of phytohormones synthesized by rhizosphere bacteria on plants. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 47:302–307.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S0003683811030148CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Sturz AV, Christie BR, Novak J (2000) Bacterial endophytes: potential role in developing sustainable system of crop production. Crit Rev Plant Sci 19:1–30.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07352680091139169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sureshbabu K, Amaresan N, Kumar K (2016) Amazing multiple function properties of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the rhizosphere soil. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 5:661–683. http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2016.502.074
  147. Tchiaze AI, Taffouo VD, Fankem H et al (2016) Influence of nitrogen sources and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Inoculation on growth, crude fiber and nutrient uptake in squash. Not Bot Horti Agrobot Cluj-Napoca 44:53.  https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha44110169
  148. Timmusk S, Islam A, El Abd D et al (2014) Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harshenvironments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stressvolatiles. PLoS One 9:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Tóth B, Lévai L, Kovács B, Varga M, Veres S (2013) Compensation effect of bacterium containing biofertilizer on the growth of Cucumis sativus L. under Al-stress conditions. Acta Biol Hung 64:60–70.  https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.64.2013.1.6CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Utkhede RS, Koch CA (1999) Rhizobacterial growth and yield promotion of cucumber plants inoculated with Pythium aphanidermatum. Can J Plant Path 21:265–271.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07060669909501189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Van Loon LC (2007) Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol 119:243–254.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-007-9165-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255:571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Vikram A, Hamzehzarghani H, Alagawadi AR, Krishnaraj PU, Chandrashekar BS (2007) Production of plant growth promoting substances by phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from vertisols. J Plant Sci 2:326–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wang CJ, Yang W, Wang C et al (2012) Induction of drought tolerance in cucumber plants by a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium strains. PLoS One 7:e52565.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052565CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Wang T, Liu MQ, Li HX (2014) Inoculation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis B1 increases available phosphorus and growth of peanut in acidic soil. Acta Agr Scand B-S P 64:252–259.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2014.905624
  156. Wu HS, Yang XN, Fan JQ et al (2009) Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by a bio-organic fertilizer containing combinations of antagonistic microorganisms. BioControl 54:287–300.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-008-9168-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wu QS, Zou YN, Liu W, Ye XF, Zai HF, Zhao LJ (2010) Alleviation of salt stress in citrus seedlings inoculated with mycorrhiza: changes in leaf antioxidant defense systems. Plant Soil Environ 56:470–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Yang JW, Kloepper JW, Ryu CM (2009) Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci 14:1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2008.10.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Yaoyao E, Yuan J, Yang F et al (2017) PGPR strain Paenibacillus polymyxaSQR‑21 potentially benefits watermelon growth by re‑shaping root protein expression. AMB Expr 7:104.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-017-0403-4
  160. Yavuz D, Seymen M, Yavuz N, Türkmen Ö (2015a) Effects of irrigation interval and quantity on the yield and quality of confectionary pumpkin grown under field conditions. Agri Wat Manag 159:290–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Yavuz D, Yavuz N, Seymen M, Türkmen Ö (2015b) Evapotranspiration, crop coefficient and seed yield of drip irrigated pumpkin under semi-arid conditions. Sci Hortic 197:33–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.11.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Yıldırım E, Ekinci M, Dursun A, Karagöz K (2015) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved seedling growth and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In: International Conference on Chemical, Food and Environment Engineering (ICCFEE’15) Jan 11–12, Dubai (UAE), pp 6–8Google Scholar
  163. Yıldırım E, Taylor AG, Spittler TD (2006) Ameliorative effects of biological treatments on growth of squash plants under salt stress. Sci Hortic 111:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.08.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Zahir ZA, Ghani U, Naveed M, Nadeem SM, Asghar HN (2009) Comperative effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase for growth promotion of pea (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions. J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:958–963Google Scholar
  165. Zaidi A, Khan MS, Ahemad M, Oves M (2009) Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 56:263–284.  https://doi.org/10.1556/AMicr.56.2009.3.6CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Zehnder G, Kloepper J, Tuzun S et al (1997) Insect feeding on cucumber mediated by rhizobacteria-induced plant resistance. Entomol Exp Appl 83:81–85.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1570-7458.1997.00159.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zehnder GW, Murphy JF, Sikora EJ, Kloepper JW (2001) Application of rhizobacteria for induced resistance. Eur J Plant Patholog 107:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Zhang S, White TL, Martinez MC, McInroy JA, Kloepper JW, Klassen W (2010) Evaluation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for control of Phytophthora blight on squash under greenhouse conditions. Biolog Cont 53:129–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.10.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Zhao J, Liu J, Liang H et al (2018) Manipulation of the rhizosphere microbial community through application of a new bioorganic fertilizer improves watermelon quality and health. PLoS One 13:e0192967.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192967CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Zhu JK, Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA (1997) Molecular aspects of osmotic stress in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 16:253–277.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689709701950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Zulkarami B, Tajul MI, Fariz A et al (2012) Effects of bacteria and arbuscular mycorhizae inoculation at different electrical conductivity level on growth and yield of rockmelon (Cucumis melo) under soilless culture. Austr J Crop Sci 6:1494–1501Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Musa Seymen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ertan Sait Kurtar
    • 1
  • Atilla Dursun
    • 2
  • Önder Türkmen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureSelçuk UniversityKonyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey

Personalised recommendations