Computational Thinking in Basic Education in a Developing Country Perspective

  • Daniel ChagasEmail author
  • Elizabeth Furtado
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Complexity book series (SPCOM)


In a connected world, where information is the most valuable input, compulsory education in computational thinking, especially in early ages, had became an important topic for governments who aim in a economy based on technology. This brought initiatives for compulsive adoption on basic education in USA and EU, but few actions on developing countries. This article presents a systematic review of academic papers and commercial products that present the teaching of logic to young people, and that deal with the use of tangible devices, robots or specific software. From the analysis performed with the review, we define requirements for teaching. Thus, considering the factors of analysis, such as pricing and replicability, we generate a series of sub-requirements aimed at adopting a solution for public schools from developing countries. As preliminary results, an interactive robot and a set of tangible artifacts adhering to the identified requirements are presented as a proposal for the teaching of computational thinking.


  1. 1.
    Papert, S.: The Childrens Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. Basic Books Inc., New York (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hatch, M.: The maker movement manifesto. Mak. Mov. Manif. (2014). Scholar
  3. 3.
    White House: The Maker Movement.
  4. 4.
    Bocconi, S., Chioccariello, A., Dettori, G., Ferrari, A., Engelhardt, K., Kampylis, P., Punie, Y.: Developing computational thinking in compulsory education. Proc. EdMedia 2016 (2016).
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Bosse, Y., Gerosa, M.A.: Why is programming so difficult to learn?: Patterns of difficulties related to programming learning mid-stage. SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes. 41, 16 (2017). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., Preece, J.: O que Design de Interao? In: Design de Interao. p. 2529. Bookman, Porto Alegre, Brazil (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rabello, E., Silveira, J.: Vygotsky e o desenvolvimento humano. 110 (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vygotsky, L.S.: Mind in society (1978)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., Preece, J.: Compreendendo e Conceitualizando a Interao. In: Design de Interao. p. 4647. Bookman, Porto Alegre, Brazil (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katterfeldt, E.-S., Cuartielles, D., Spikol, D., Ehrenberg, N.: Talkoo. A new paradigm for physical computing at school. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children-IDC pp. 512–517 (2016).
  12. 12.
    van Gennip, D., Orth, D., Imtiaz, M.A., van den Hoven, E., Plimmer, B.: Tangible cognition: bringing together tangible interaction and cognition in HCI. In: Proceedings of the 28th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction. pp. 662–665. ACM, New York (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Horn, M.S., Solovey, E.T., Crouser, R.J., Jacob, R.J.K.: Comparing the use of tangible and graphical programming languages for informal science education. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems-CHI. p. 975 (2009).
  14. 14.
    McNerney, T.S.: From turtles to tangible programming bricks: explorations in physical language design. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 8, 326337 (2004). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Futschek, G., Moschitz, J.: Learning algorithmic thinking with tangible objects eases transition to computer programming. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (including Subser. Lect. Notes Artif. Intell. Lect. Notes Bioinformatics). 7013 LNCS, 155164 (2011). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Posada, J.E.G., Baranauskas, M.C.C.: A socio-constructionist environment to create stories using tangible interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 14th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp. 1:1–1:10. ACM, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Honig, W.L.: Teaching and assessing programming fundamentals for non majors with visual programming. In: Proceedings of the 18th ACM conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education-ITiCSE 13. p. 40. ACM, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martins, F.N., Gomes, I.S., Santos, C.R.F.: Junior soccer simulation: providing all primary and secondary students access to educational robotics. In: Proceedings of the 12th LARS Latin American Robotics Symposium 3rd SBR Brazilian Symposium on Robotics LARS-SBR 2015—Part Robotics Conference 2015. pp. 61–66 (2016).
  19. 19.
    Esper, S., Foster, S.R., Griswold, W.G.: CodeSpells. In: Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education-ITiCSE 13. p. 249 (2013).
  20. 20.
    Azemi, A., Pauley, L.L.: Teaching the introductory computer programming course for engineers using Matlab. In: 2008 38th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference (2008).
  21. 21.
    Sarkar, N.I., Craig, T.M.: A low-cost PIC unit for teaching computer hardware fundamentals to undergraduates. ACM SIGCSE Bull. 39, 88 (2007). Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Hongjun, S., Xin, M., Fengyu, Z., Yibin, L.: The design and implementation of OpenGL-based comprehensive educational robot system. In: Proceedings of the IEEE ICIA 2006—2006 IEEE International Conference on Information Acquisition. pp. 522–527 (2006).
  25. 25.
    Garduno-Aparicio, M., Rodriguez-Resendiz, J., Macias-Bobadilla, G., Thenozhi, S.: A multidisciplinary industrial robot approach for teaching mechatronics-related courses. IEEE Trans. Educ. 61, 5562 (2018). Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lopes Filho, J.A.B., Almeida, W.R.M., Martins, S.G.: Development of a multitasking mobile robot for the construction of educational robotics kits. In: International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications (ICEDSA). pp. 213–216 (2011).
  27. 27.
    Barreto, V.B., LErario, A., Fabri, J.A.: Ensino de Programacao para Alunos do Ensino Mdio Utilizando o Robo Lego Mindstorms. In: 2015 10th Iberian Conference on Information Systems Technologies CISTI (2015).
  28. 28.
    Lalonde, J.-F., Bartley, C.P., Nourbakhsh, I.: Mobile robot programming in education. In: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation pp. 345–350 (2006).
  29. 29.
    Member, M.R., Lysecky, S., Rozenblit, J.: Educational technologies for precollege engineers. 5, 2037 (2011)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Merkouris, A., Chorianopoulos, K., Kameas, A.: Teaching programming in secondary education through embodied computing platforms. ACM Trans. Comput. Educ. 17, 122 (2017). Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ozobot, Evollve.: Ozobot, (2017)
  32. 32.
    Besari, A.R.A., Sukaridhoto, S., Wibowo, I.K., Berlian, M.H., Akbar, M.A.W., Yohanes Yohanie, F.P., Aldi Bayu, K.I.: Preliminary design of interactive visual mobile programming on educational robot ADROIT V1. In: Proceedings of the 2016 International Electronics Symposium. IES 2016. pp. 499–503 (2017).
  33. 33.
    Krishnamoorthy, S.P., Kapila, V.: Using a visual programming environment and custom robots to learn C programming and K-12 STEM concepts. In: Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference on Creativity and Fabrication in Education-FabLearn 16. pp. 41–48 (2016)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gupta, N., Tejovanth, N., Murthy, P.: Learning by creating: interactive programming for Indian high schools. In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education ICTEE 2012. p. 24 (2012).
  35. 35.
    Tangible Play Inc.: Osmo (2013)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Banzi, M.: Getting Started with Arduino (Make: Projects). Make Books (2008)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carbajal, M.L., Baranauskas, M.C.C.: TaPrEC: Desenvolvendo um ambiente de programao tangvel de baixo custo para crianas. An. do XX Congr. Int. Informtica Educ.- TISE. 11, 363–370 (2015)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koushik, V., Kane, S.K.: Tangibles + Programming + Audio Stories = Fun. In: Proceedings of the 19th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility-ASSETS 17. pp. 341–342 (2017).
  39. 39.
    Baranauskas, M.C.C., de Souza, C.S., Pereira, R.: GranDIHC-BR: Prospeco De Grandes Desafios De Pesquisa Em Interao Humano-computador No Brasil. In: Companion Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems. p. 6364. Brazilian Computer Society, Porto Alegre, Brazil (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LUQS, Universidade de FortalezaFortalezaBrazil

Personalised recommendations